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Vernolepin for COVID-19

Vernolepin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Saquib et al., Identification of Phytochemicals from Arabian Peninsula Medicinal Plants as Strong Binders to SARS-CoV-2 Proteases (3CLPro and PLPro) by Molecular Docking and Dynamic Simulation Studies, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules29050998
We provide promising computational (in silico) data on phytochemicals (compounds 1–10) from Arabian Peninsula medicinal plants as strong binders, targeting 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLPro) and papain-like proteases (PLPro) of SARS-CoV-2. Compounds 1–10 followed the Lipinski rules of five (RO5) and ADMET analysis, exhibiting drug-like characters. Non-covalent (reversible) docking of compounds 1–10 demonstrated their binding with the catalytic dyad (CYS145 and HIS41) of 3CLPro and catalytic triad (CYS111, HIS272, and ASP286) of PLPro. Moreover, the implementation of the covalent (irreversible) docking protocol revealed that only compounds 7, 8, and 9 possess covalent warheads, which allowed the formation of the covalent bond with the catalytic dyad (CYS145) in 3CLPro and the catalytic triad (CYS111) in PLPro. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF), and radius of gyration (Rg) analysis from molecular dynamic (MD) simulations revealed that complexation between ligands (compounds 7, 8, and 9) and 3CLPro and PLPro was stable, and there was less deviation of ligands. Overall, the in silico data on the inherent properties of the above phytochemicals unravel the fact that they can act as reversible inhibitors for 3CLPro and PLPro. Moreover, compounds 7, 8, and 9 also showed their novel properties to inhibit dual targets by irreversible inhibition, indicating their effectiveness for possibly developing future drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Nonetheless, to confirm the theoretical findings here, the effectiveness of the above compounds as inhibitors of 3CLPro and PLPro warrants future investigations using suitable in vitro and in vivo tests.
Bakheit et al., Covalent Inhibitors from Saudi Medicinal Plants Target RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15112175
COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has caused a huge loss of human life, and the number of deaths is still continuing. Despite the lack of repurposed drugs and vaccines, the search for potential small molecules to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 is in demand. Hence, we relied on the drug-like characters of ten phytochemicals (compounds 1–10) that were previously isolated and purified by our research team from Saudi medicinal plants. We computationally evaluated the inhibition of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by compounds 1–10. Non-covalent (reversible) docking of compounds 1–10 with RdRp led to the formation of a hydrogen bond with template primer nucleotides (A and U) and key amino acid residues (ASP623, LYS545, ARG555, ASN691, SER682, and ARG553) in its active pocket. Covalent (irreversible) docking revealed that compounds 7, 8, and 9 exhibited their irreversible nature of binding with CYS813, a crucial amino acid in the palm domain of RdRP. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation analysis by RMSD, RMSF, and Rg parameters affirmed that RdRP complexes with compounds 7, 8, and 9 were stable and showed less deviation. Our data provide novel information on compounds 7, 8, and 9 that demonstrated their non-nucleoside and irreversible interaction capabilities to inhibit RdRp and shed new scaffolds as antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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