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Tubeimoside I for COVID-19

Tubeimoside I has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Khan et al., Tubeimosides are pan-coronavirus and filovirus inhibitors that can block their fusion protein binding to Niemann-Pick C1, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-023-44504-4
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 and filovirus enter cells via the cell surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or the late-endosome Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a receptor. Here, we screened 974 natural compounds and identified Tubeimosides I, II, and III as pan-coronavirus and filovirus entry inhibitors that target NPC1. Using in-silico, biochemical, and genomic approaches, we provide evidence that NPC1 also binds SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is blocked by Tubeimosides. Importantly, NPC1 strongly promotes productive SARS-CoV-2 entry, which we propose is due to its influence on fusion in late endosomes. The Tubeimosides’ antiviral activity and NPC1 function are further confirmed by infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. Thus, NPC1 is a critical entry co-factor for highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in the late endosomes, and Tubeimosides hold promise as a new countermeasure for these HCoVs and filoviruses.
Ju et al., A novel cell culture system modeling the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009439
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the global pandemic of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, impeding the basic research into its biology and the development of effective antivirals. Here, we developed a biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) cell culture system for production of transcription and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus-like-particles (trVLP). This trVLP expresses a reporter gene (GFP) replacing viral nucleocapsid gene (N), which is required for viral genome packaging and virion assembly (SARS-CoV-2 GFP/ΔN trVLP). The complete viral life cycle can be achieved and exclusively confined in the cells ectopically expressing SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 N proteins, but not MERS-CoV N. Genetic recombination of N supplied in trans into viral genome was not detected, as evidenced by sequence analysis after one-month serial passages in the N-expressing cells. Moreover, intein-mediated protein trans-splicing approach was utilized to split the viral N gene into two independent vectors, and the ligated viral N protein could function in trans to recapitulate entire viral life cycle, further securing the biosafety of this cell culture model. Based on this BSL-2 SARS-CoV-2 cell culture model, we developed a 96-well format high throughput screening for antivirals discovery. We identified salinomycin, tubeimoside I, monensin sodium, lycorine chloride and nigericin sodium as potent antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, we developed a convenient and efficient SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics tool to dissect the virus life cycle under a BSL-2 condition. This powerful tool should accelerate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology and its antiviral development.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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