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Tazarotene for COVID-19

Tazarotene has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Riva et al., A Large-scale Drug Repositioning Survey for SARS-CoV-2 Antivirals, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.044016
AbstractThe emergence of novel SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of severe pneumonia-like disease designated as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, more than 2.1 million confirmed cases and 139,500 deaths have been reported worldwide, and there are currently no medical countermeasures available to prevent or treat the disease. As the development of a vaccine could require at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline from hit finding to drug registration of an antiviral is >10 years, repositioning of known drugs can significantly accelerate the development and deployment of therapies for COVID-19. To identify therapeutics that can be repurposed as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals, we profiled a library of known drugs encompassing approximately 12,000 clinical-stage or FDA-approved small molecules. Here, we report the identification of 30 known drugs that inhibit viral replication. Of these, six were characterized for cellular dose-activity relationships, and showed effective concentrations likely to be commensurate with therapeutic doses in patients. These include the PIKfyve kinase inhibitor Apilimod, cysteine protease inhibitors MDL-28170, Z LVG CHN2, VBY-825, and ONO 5334, and the CCR1 antagonist MLN-3897. Since many of these molecules have advanced into the clinic, the known pharmacological and human safety profiles of these compounds will accelerate their preclinical and clinical evaluation for COVID-19 treatment.
Issac et al., Improved And Optimized Drug Repurposing For The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.24.485618
The active global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused more than 426 million cases and 5.8 million deaths worldwide. The development of completely new drugs for such a novel disease is a challenging, time intensive process. Despite researchers around the world working on this task, no effective treatments have been developed yet. This emphasizes the importance of drug repurposing, where treatments are found among existing drugs that are meant for different diseases. A common approach to this is based on \emph{knowledge graphs}, that condense relationships between entities like drugs, diseases and genes. Graph neural networks (GNNs) can then be used for the task at hand by predicting links in such knowledge graphs. Expanding on state-of-the-art GNN research, Doshi {\sl et al.} recently developed the \drcov \ model. We further extend their work using additional output interpretation strategies. The best aggregation strategy derives a top-100 ranking of 8,070 candidate drugs, 32 of which are currently being tested in COVID-19-related clinical trials. Moreover, we present an alternative application for the model, the generation of additional candidates based on a given pre-selection of drug candidates using collaborative filtering. In addition, we improved the implementation of the \drcov \ model by significantly shortening the inference and pre-processing time by exploiting data-parallelism. As drug repurposing is a task that requires high computation and memory resources, we further accelerate the post-processing phase using a new emerging hardware --- we propose a new approach to leverage the use of high-capacity Non-Volatile Memory for aggregate drug ranking.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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