Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

Home COVID-19 treatment researchSelect treatment..Select..
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

Sulforaphane for COVID-19

Sulforaphane has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ordonez et al., Sulforaphane exhibits antiviral activity against pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses in vitro and in mice, Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-022-03189-z
AbstractSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane (SFN), the principal biologically active phytochemical derived from glucoraphanin, the naturally occurring precursor present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of six strains of SARS-CoV-2, including Delta and Omicron, as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18-hACE2 mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN should be explored as a potential agent for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus infections.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Zhao et al., Identification of Potential Lead Compounds Targeting Novel Druggable Cavity of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Trimer by Molecular Dynamics Simulations, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24076281
The global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become an urgent public health problem. Spike (S) protein mediates the fusion between the virus and the host cell membranes, consequently emerging as an important target of drug design. The lack of comparisons of in situ full-length S homotrimer structures in different states hinders understanding the structures and revealing the function, thereby limiting the discovery and development of therapeutic agents. Here, the steady-state structures of the in situ full-length S trimer in closed and open states (Sclosed and Sopen) were modeled with the constraints of density maps, associated with the analysis of the dynamic structural differences. Subsequently, we identified various regions with structure and property differences as potential binding pockets for ligands that promote the formation of inactive trimeric protein complexes. By using virtual screening strategy and a newly defined druggable cavity, five ligands were screened with potential bioactivities. Then molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed on apo protein structures and ligand bound complexes to reveal the conformational changes upon ligand binding. Our simulation results revealed that sulforaphane (SFN), which has the best binding affinity, could inhibit the conformational changes of S homotrimer that would occur during the viral membrane fusion. Our results could aid in the understanding of the regulation mechanism of S trimer aggregation and the structure-activity relationship, facilitating the development of potential antiviral agents.
Campos-Gomez et al., Mucociliary Clearance Augmenting Drugs Block SARS-Cov-2 Replication in Human Airway Epithelial Cells, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.01.30.526308
AbstractThe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is devastatingly impacting human health. A prominent component of COVID-19 is the infection and destruction of the ciliated respiratory cells, which perpetuates dissemination and disrupts protective mucociliary transport (MCT) function, an innate defense of the respiratory tract. Thus, drugs that augment MCT could improve barrier function of the airway epithelium, reduce viral replication and, ultimately, COVID-19 outcomes. We tested five agents known to increase MCT through distinct mechanisms for activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection using a model of human respiratory epithelial cells terminally differentiated in an air/liquid interphase. Three of the five mucoactive compounds tested showed significant inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 replication. An archetype mucoactive agent, ARINA-1, blocked viral replication and therefore epithelial cell injury, thus, it was further studied using biochemical, genetic and biophysical methods to ascertain mechanism of action via improvement of MCT. ARINA-1 antiviral activity was dependent on enhancing the MCT cellular response, since terminal differentiation, intact ciliary expression and motion was required for ARINA-1-mediated anti-SARS-CoV2 protection. Ultimately, we showed that improvement of cilia movement was caused by ARINA-1-mediated regulation of the redox state of the intracellular environment, which benefited MCT. Our study indicates that Intact MCT reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its pharmacologic activation may be effective as an anti-COVID-19 treatment.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.