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Succinic acid for COVID-19

Succinic acid has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Szabó et al., Natural products as a source of Coronavirus entry inhibitors, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2024.1353971
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant and lasting impact on the world. Four years on, despite the existence of effective vaccines, the continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a challenge for long-term immunity. Additionally, there remain few purpose-built antivirals to protect individuals at risk of severe disease in the event of future coronavirus outbreaks. A promising mechanism of action for novel coronavirus antivirals is the inhibition of viral entry. To facilitate entry, the coronavirus spike glycoprotein interacts with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on respiratory epithelial cells. Blocking this interaction and consequently viral replication may be an effective strategy for treating infection, however further research is needed to better characterize candidate molecules with antiviral activity before progressing to animal studies and clinical trials. In general, antiviral drugs are developed from purely synthetic compounds or synthetic derivatives of natural products such as plant secondary metabolites. While the former is often favored due to the higher specificity afforded by rational drug design, natural products offer several unique advantages that make them worthy of further study including diverse bioactivity and the ability to work synergistically with other drugs. Accordingly, there has recently been a renewed interest in natural product-derived antivirals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides a summary of recent research into coronavirus entry inhibitors, with a focus on natural compounds derived from plants, honey, and marine sponges.
Wei et al., Total network controllability analysis discovers explainable drugs for Covid-19 treatment, Biology Direct, doi:10.1186/s13062-023-00410-9
Abstract Background The active pursuit of network medicine for drug repurposing, particularly for combating Covid-19, has stimulated interest in the concept of structural controllability in cellular networks. We sought to extend this theory, focusing on the defense rather than control of the cell against viral infections. Accordingly, we extended structural controllability to total structural controllability and introduced the concept of control hubs. Perturbing any control hub may render the cell uncontrollable by exogenous stimuli like viral infections, so control hubs are ideal drug targets. Results We developed an efficient algorithm to identify all control hubs, applying it to a largest homogeneous network of human protein interactions, including interactions between human and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Our method recognized 65 druggable control hubs with enriched antiviral functions. Utilizing these hubs, we categorized potential drugs into four groups: antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, drugs acting on the central nervous system, dietary supplements, and compounds enhancing immunity. An exemplification of our approach’s effectiveness, Fostamatinib, a drug initially developed for chronic immune thrombocytopenia, is now in clinical trials for treating Covid-19. Preclinical trial data demonstrated that Fostamatinib could reduce mortality rates, ICU stay length, and disease severity in Covid-19 patients. Conclusions Our findings confirm the efficacy of our novel strategy that leverages control hubs as drug targets. This approach provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of potential therapeutics for Covid-19, making it a valuable tool for interpretable drug discovery. Our new approach is general and applicable to repurposing drugs for other diseases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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