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Romidepsin for COVID-19

Romidepsin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Gysi et al., Network Medicine Framework for Identifying Drug Repurposing Opportunities for COVID-19, arXiv, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2004.07229
The current pandemic has highlighted the need for methodologies that can quickly and reliably prioritize clinically approved compounds for their potential effectiveness for SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the past decade, network medicine has developed and validated multiple predictive algorithms for drug repurposing, exploiting the sub-cellular network-based relationship between a drug's targets and disease genes. Here, we deployed algorithms relying on artificial intelligence, network diffusion, and network proximity, tasking each of them to rank 6,340 drugs for their expected efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. To test the predictions, we used as ground truth 918 drugs that had been experimentally screened in VeroE6 cells, and the list of drugs under clinical trial, that capture the medical community's assessment of drugs with potential COVID-19 efficacy. We find that while most algorithms offer predictive power for these ground truth data, no single method offers consistently reliable outcomes across all datasets and metrics. This prompted us to develop a multimodal approach that fuses the predictions of all algorithms, showing that a consensus among the different predictive methods consistently exceeds the performance of the best individual pipelines. We find that 76 of the 77 drugs that successfully reduced viral infection do not bind the proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that these drugs rely on network-based actions that cannot be identified using docking-based strategies. These advances offer a methodological pathway to identify repurposable drugs for future pathogens and neglected diseases underserved by the costs and extended timeline of de novo drug development.
Wei et al., Total network controllability analysis discovers explainable drugs for Covid-19 treatment, Biology Direct, doi:10.1186/s13062-023-00410-9
Abstract Background The active pursuit of network medicine for drug repurposing, particularly for combating Covid-19, has stimulated interest in the concept of structural controllability in cellular networks. We sought to extend this theory, focusing on the defense rather than control of the cell against viral infections. Accordingly, we extended structural controllability to total structural controllability and introduced the concept of control hubs. Perturbing any control hub may render the cell uncontrollable by exogenous stimuli like viral infections, so control hubs are ideal drug targets. Results We developed an efficient algorithm to identify all control hubs, applying it to a largest homogeneous network of human protein interactions, including interactions between human and SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Our method recognized 65 druggable control hubs with enriched antiviral functions. Utilizing these hubs, we categorized potential drugs into four groups: antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, drugs acting on the central nervous system, dietary supplements, and compounds enhancing immunity. An exemplification of our approach’s effectiveness, Fostamatinib, a drug initially developed for chronic immune thrombocytopenia, is now in clinical trials for treating Covid-19. Preclinical trial data demonstrated that Fostamatinib could reduce mortality rates, ICU stay length, and disease severity in Covid-19 patients. Conclusions Our findings confirm the efficacy of our novel strategy that leverages control hubs as drug targets. This approach provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of potential therapeutics for Covid-19, making it a valuable tool for interpretable drug discovery. Our new approach is general and applicable to repurposing drugs for other diseases.
Ravindran et al., Discovery of host-directed modulators of virus infection by probing the SARS-CoV-2–host protein–protein interaction network, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac456
Abstract The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need to better understand virus–host interactions. We developed a network-based method that expands the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)–host protein interaction network and identifies host targets that modulate viral infection. To disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 interactome, we systematically probed for potent compounds that selectively target the identified host proteins with high expression in cells relevant to COVID-19. We experimentally tested seven chemical inhibitors of the identified host proteins for modulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human cells that express ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Inhibition of the epigenetic regulators bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), along with ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP10), enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such proviral effect was observed upon treatment with compounds JQ1, vorinostat, romidepsin and spautin-1, when measured by cytopathic effect and validated by viral RNA assays, suggesting that the host proteins HDAC2, BRD4 and USP10 have antiviral functions. We observed marked differences in antiviral effects across cell lines, which may have consequences for identification of selective modulators of viral infection or potential antiviral therapeutics. While network-based approaches enable systematic identification of host targets and selective compounds that may modulate the SARS-CoV-2 interactome, further developments are warranted to increase their accuracy and cell-context specificity.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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