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Ritonavir for COVID-19

Ritonavir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Tam et al., Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Proteins, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms241613002
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped respiratory β coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), leading to a deadly pandemic that has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Like other coronaviruses, the SARS-CoV-2 genome also codes for non-structural proteins (NSPs). These NSPs are found within open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and encode NSP1 to NSP11 and NSP12 to NSP16, respectively. This study aimed to collect the available literature regarding NSP inhibitors. In addition, we searched the natural product database looking for similar structures. The results showed that similar structures could be tested as potential inhibitors of the NSPs.
Mushebenge et al., Assessing the Potential Contribution of in Silico Studies in Discovering Drug Candidates that Interact with Various SARS-CoV-2 Receptors, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0434.v1
COVID-19 pandemic has spurred intense research efforts to identify effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2. In silico studies have emerged as a powerful tool in the drug discovery process, particularly in the search for drug candidates that interact with various SARS-CoV-2 receptors. These studies involve the use of computer simulations and computational algorithms to predict the potential interaction of drug candidates with target receptors. The primary receptors targeted by drug candidates include the RNA polymerase, main protease, spike protein, ACE2 receptor, TMPRSS2, and AP2-associated protein kinase 1. In silico studies have identified several promising drug candidates, including Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Ribavirin, Ivermectin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and Camostat mesylate, among others. The use of in silico studies offers several advantages, including the ability to screen a large number of drug candidates in a relatively short amount of time, thereby reducing the time and cost involved in traditional drug discovery methods. Additionally, in silico studies allow for the prediction of the binding affinity of drug candidates to target receptors, providing insight into their potential efficacy. However, it is crucial to consider both the advantages and limitations of these studies and to complement them with experimental validation to ensure the efficacy and safety of identified drug candidates.
Pandit et al., e-Pharmacophore modeling and in silico study of CD147 receptor against SARS-CoV-2 drugs, Genomics & Informatics, doi:10.5808/gi.23005
Coronavirus has left severe health impacts on the human population, globally. Still a significant number of cases are reported daily as no specific medications are available for its effective treatment. The presence of the CD147 receptor (human basigin) on the host cell facilitates the severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, the drugs that efficiently alter the formation of CD147 and spike protein complex could be the right drug candidate to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Hence, an e-Pharmacophore model was developed based on the receptor-ligand cavity of CD147 protein which was further mapped against pre-existing drugs of coronavirus disease treatment. A total of seven drugs were found to be suited as pharmacophores out of 11 drugs screened which was further docked with CD147 protein using CDOCKER of Biovia discovery studio. The active site sphere of the prepared protein was 101.44, 87.84, and 97.17 along with the radius being 15.33 and the root-mean-square deviation value obtained was 0.73 Å. The protein minimization energy was calculated to be –30,328.81547 kcal/mol. The docking results showed ritonavir as the best fit as it demonstrated a higher CDOCKER energy (–57.30) with correspond to CDOCKER interaction energy (–53.38). However, authors further suggest in vitro studies to understand the potential activity of the ritonavir.
Onyango, O., In Silico Models for Anti-COVID-19 Drug Discovery: A Systematic Review, Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1155/2023/4562974
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe worldwide pandemic. Due to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and the presence of only one Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-COVID-19 drug (remdesivir), the disease remains a mindboggling global public health problem. Developing anti-COVID-19 drug candidates that are effective against SARS-CoV-2 and its various variants is a pressing need that should be satisfied. This systematic review assesses the existing literature that used in silico models during the discovery procedure of anti-COVID-19 drugs. Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed were used to conduct a literature search to find the relevant articles utilizing the search terms “In silico model,” “COVID-19,” “Anti-COVID-19 drug,” “Drug discovery,” “Computational drug designing,” and “Computer-aided drug design.” Studies published in English between 2019 and December 2022 were included in the systematic review. From the 1120 articles retrieved from the databases and reference lists, only 33 were included in the review after the removal of duplicates, screening, and eligibility assessment. Most of the articles are studies that use SARS-CoV-2 proteins as drug targets. Both ligand-based and structure-based methods were utilized to obtain lead anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Sixteen articles also assessed absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET), and drug-likeness properties. Confirmation of the inhibitory ability of the candidate leads by in vivo or in vitro assays was reported in only five articles. Virtual screening, molecular docking (MD), and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) emerged as the most commonly utilized in silico models for anti-COVID-19 drug discovery.
Huang et al., DeepCoVDR: deep transfer learning with graph transformer and cross-attention for predicting COVID-19 drug response, Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btad244
Abstract Motivation The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency. Although people, especially those with underlying health conditions, could benefit from several approved COVID-19 therapeutics, the development of effective antiviral COVID-19 drugs is still a very urgent problem. Accurate and robust drug response prediction to a new chemical compound is critical for discovering safe and effective COVID-19 therapeutics. Results In this study, we propose DeepCoVDR, a novel COVID-19 drug response prediction method based on deep transfer learning with graph transformer and cross-attention. First, we adopt a graph transformer and feed-forward neural network to mine the drug and cell line information. Then, we use a cross-attention module that calculates the interaction between the drug and cell line. After that, DeepCoVDR combines drug and cell line representation and their interaction features to predict drug response. To solve the problem of SARS-CoV-2 data scarcity, we apply transfer learning and use the SARS-CoV-2 dataset to fine-tune the model pretrained on the cancer dataset. The experiments of regression and classification show that DeepCoVDR outperforms baseline methods. We also evaluate DeepCoVDR on the cancer dataset, and the results indicate that our approach has high performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use DeepCoVDR to predict COVID-19 drugs from FDA-approved drugs and demonstrate the effectiveness of DeepCoVDR in identifying novel COVID-19 drugs. Availability and implementation
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Nayak et al., Prospects of Novel and Repurposed Immunomodulatory Drugs against Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Associated with COVID-19 Disease, Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm13040664
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is intricately linked with SARS-CoV-2-associated disease severity and mortality, especially in patients with co-morbidities. Lung tissue injury caused as a consequence of ARDS leads to fluid build-up in the alveolar sacs, which in turn affects oxygen supply from the capillaries. ARDS is a result of a hyperinflammatory, non-specific local immune response (cytokine storm), which is aggravated as the virus evades and meddles with protective anti-viral innate immune responses. Treatment and management of ARDS remain a major challenge, first, because the condition develops as the virus keeps replicating and, therefore, immunomodulatory drugs are required to be used with caution. Second, the hyperinflammatory responses observed during ARDS are quite heterogeneous and dependent on the stage of the disease and the clinical history of the patients. In this review, we present different anti-rheumatic drugs, natural compounds, monoclonal antibodies, and RNA therapeutics and discuss their application in the management of ARDS. We also discuss on the suitability of each of these drug classes at different stages of the disease. In the last section, we discuss the potential applications of advanced computational approaches in identifying reliable drug targets and in screening out credible lead compounds against ARDS.
Talukdar et al., Potential Drugs for COVID -19 Treatment Management With Their Contraindications and Drug- Drug Interaction, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0690.v1
Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCOV) causes inflammatory response with worsening symptoms. Classification of potential anti-viral and anti-inflammatory drugs in managing the symptoms of the COVID-19 and reducing morbidity is important. The objective of this study is to identify a group of drugs, best suited for COVID-19 treatment based on recent developments in clinical trials, FDA drug evaluation, directions and developments and from drug therapies globally. Online literature search was done on Medline, PubMed and google scholar databases for studies on various treatments and drug therapies for COVID-19 and relevant studies were identified and the identified drugs are described in detail as per their Pharmacological, pharmaceutical properties of the drugs, mechanism of action, current COVID-19 drug therapy, contraindications and drug-drug interactions Certain drugs can inhibit action against viral infection and protect lungs from severe inflammatory response. This article summarizes several drugs like Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Lopinavir, Ritonavir, Dexamethasone, Ivermectin, Baricitinib, Casirivimab / imdevimab, Bamlanivimab along with auxiliary treatment like convalescent plasma transfusion. Remdesivir is first drug approved by FDA. Hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone and remdesivir are showing results against COVID-19 but it is important to test the efficacy and safety of such drugs though some drugs have shown remarkable results.
Guo et al., Enhanced compound-protein binding affinity prediction by representing protein multimodal information via a coevolutionary strategy, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac628
Abstract Due to the lack of a method to efficiently represent the multimodal information of a protein, including its structure and sequence information, predicting compound-protein binding affinity (CPA) still suffers from low accuracy when applying machine-learning methods. To overcome this limitation, in a novel end-to-end architecture (named FeatNN), we develop a coevolutionary strategy to jointly represent the structure and sequence features of proteins and ultimately optimize the mathematical models for predicting CPA. Furthermore, from the perspective of data-driven approach, we proposed a rational method that can utilize both high- and low-quality databases to optimize the accuracy and generalization ability of FeatNN in CPA prediction tasks. Notably, we visually interpret the feature interaction process between sequence and structure in the rationally designed architecture. As a result, FeatNN considerably outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) baseline in virtual drug evaluation tasks, indicating the feasibility of this approach for practical use. FeatNN provides an outstanding method for higher CPA prediction accuracy and better generalization ability by efficiently representing multimodal information of proteins via a coevolutionary strategy.
Mousavi et al., Novel Drug Design for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1155/2022/2044282
Background. Since the beginning of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease outbreak, there has been an increasing interest in discovering potential therapeutic agents for this disease. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review through an overview of drug development (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) for treating COVID-19. Methods. A systematic search was carried out in major databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from December 2019 to March 2021. A combination of the following terms was used: coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, drug design, drug development, In silico, In vitro, and In vivo. A narrative synthesis was performed as a qualitative method for the data synthesis of each outcome measure. Results. A total of 2168 articles were identified through searching databases. Finally, 315 studies (266 in silico, 34 in vitro, and 15 in vivo) were included. In studies with in silico approach, 98 article study repurposed drug and 91 studies evaluated herbal medicine on COVID-19. Among 260 drugs repurposed by the computational method, the best results were observed with saquinavir (n = 9), ritonavir (n = 8), and lopinavir (n = 6). Main protease (n = 154) following spike glycoprotein (n = 62) and other nonstructural protein of virus (n = 45) was among the most studied targets. Doxycycline, chlorpromazine, azithromycin, heparin, bepridil, and glycyrrhizic acid showed both in silico and in vitro inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion. The preclinical studies of novel drug design for COVID-19 focused on main protease and spike glycoprotein as targets for antiviral development. From evaluated structures, saquinavir, ritonavir, eucalyptus, Tinospora cordifolia, aloe, green tea, curcumin, pyrazole, and triazole derivatives in in silico studies and doxycycline, chlorpromazine, and heparin from in vitro and human monoclonal antibodies from in vivo studies showed promised results regarding efficacy. It seems that due to the nature of COVID-19 disease, finding some drugs with multitarget antiviral actions and anti-inflammatory potential is valuable and some herbal medicines have this potential.
Zhong et al., Recent advances in small-molecular therapeutics for COVID-19, Precision Clinical Medicine, doi:10.1093/pcmedi/pbac024
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic poses a fundamental challenge to global health. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, great efforts have been made to identify antiviral strategies and develop therapeutic drugs to combat the disease. There are different strategies for developing small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, including targeting coronavirus structural proteins (e.g. spike protein), non-structural proteins (nsp) (e.g. RdRp, Mpro, PLpro, helicase, nsp14, and nsp16), host proteases (e.g. TMPRSS2, cathepsin, and furin) and the pivotal proteins mediating endocytosis (e.g. PIKfyve), as well as developing endosome acidification agents and immune response modulators. Favipiravir and chloroquine are the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that were identified earlier in this epidemic and repurposed for COVID-19 clinical therapy based on these strategies. However, their efficacies are controversial. Currently, three small molecular anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, remdesivir, molnupiravir, and Paxlovid (PF-07321332 plus ritonavir), have been granted emergency use authorization or approved for COVID-19 therapy in many countries due to their significant curative effects in phase III trials. Meanwhile, a large number of promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates have entered clinical evaluation. The development of these drugs brings hope for us to finally conquer COVID-19. In this account, we conducted a comprehensive review of the recent advances in small molecule anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents according to the target classification. Here we present all the approved drugs and most of the important drug candidates for each target, and discuss the challenges and perspectives for the future research and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.
Loucera et al., Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.14.22278751
Despite the extensive vaccination campaigns in many countries, COVID-19 is still a major worldwide health problem because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, finding efficient treatments as fast as possible is a pressing need. Drug repurposing constitutes a convenient alternative when the need for new drugs in an unexpected medical scenario is urgent, as is the case with COVID-19. Using data from a central registry of electronic health records (the Andalusian Population Health Database, BPS), the effect of prior consumption of drugs for other indications previous to the hospitalization with respect to patient survival was studied on a retrospective cohort of 15,968 individuals, comprising all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Andalusia between January and November 2020. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios and analysis of lymphocyte progression curves support a significant association between consumption of 21 different drugs and better patient survival. Contrarily, one drug, furosemide, displayed a significant increase in patient mortality.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Davarpanah et al., Combination of Spironolactone and Sitagliptin Improves Clinical Outcomes of Outpatients with COVID-19: An Observational Study, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.21.22269322
AbstractBackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to hospitalization and death, especially in elderly and those with comorbidities. There are evidences showing that sitagliptin and spironolactone can potentially improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 cases. In this observational study on acutely symptomatic outpatient COVID-19 cases, we investigated the effects of spironolactone and sitagliptin on the outcomes of the disease.MethodsThis prospective cohort study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Clinics during the fifth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic between July 2021 and September 2021. We followed mild to moderate symptomatic COVID-19 patients, who were treated with either combination (spironolactone 100 mg daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily) or standard (steroid, antiviral and/or supportive care) therapy up to 30 days. Our primary outcome was hospitalization rate. The secondary outcomes included ER visit, duration of disease, and complications, such as hypoglycemia, low blood pressure or altered mental status.ResultsOf the 206 patients referred to clinics, 103 received standard therapy and 103 treated with combination therapy. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, except for slightly higher clinical score in control group (6.92 ± 4.01 control, 4.87 ± 2.92 combination; P <0.0001). Treatment with combination therapy was associated with lower admission rate (5.8% combination, 22.3% control; P = 0.0011), ER visits (7.8% combination, 23.3% control; P = 0.0021) and average duration of symptoms (6.67 ± 2.30 days combination, 18.71 ± 6.49 days control; P =<0.0001).ConclusionIn this prospective cohort study of acutely ill outpatients with COVID-19, the combination of sitagliptin and spironolactone reduced duration of COVID infection and hospital visits better than standard therapeutic approaches. The effects of combination of sitagliptin and spironolactone in COVID-19 patients should be further verified in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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