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Ramelteon for COVID-19

Ramelteon has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Pohl et al., Combined computational and cellular screening identifies synergistic inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by lenvatinib and remdesivir, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.19.435806
ABSTRACTRapid repurposing of existing drugs as new therapeutics for COVID-19 has been an important strategy in the management of disease severity during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we used high-throughput docking to screen 6000 compounds within the DrugBank library for their potential to bind and inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 3CL main protease, a chymotrypsin-like enzyme that is essential for viral replication. For 19 candidate hits, parallel in vitro fluorescence-based protease-inhibition assays and Vero-CCL81 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 replication-inhibition assays were performed. One hit, diclazuril (an investigational anti-protozoal compound), was validated as a SARS-CoV-2 3CL main protease inhibitor in vitro (IC50 value of 29 µM) and modestly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero-CCL81 cells. Another hit, lenvatinib (approved for use in humans as an anti-cancer treatment), could not be validated as a SARS-CoV-2 3CL main protease inhibitor in vitro, but serendipitously exhibited a striking functional synergy with the approved nucleoside analogue remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication, albeit this was specific to Vero-CCL81 cells. Lenvatinib is a broadly-acting host receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, but the synergistic effect with remdesivir was not observed with other approved RTK inhibitors (such as pazopanib or sunitinib), suggesting that the mechanism-of-action is independent of host RTKs. Furthermore, time-of-addition studies revealed that lenvatinib/remdesivir synergy probably targets SARS-CoV-2 replication subsequent to host-cell entry. Our work shows that combining computational and cellular screening is a means to identify existing drugs with repurposing potential as antiviral compounds. Future studies could be aimed at understanding and optimizing the lenvatinib/remdesivir synergistic mechanism as a therapeutic option.
Pohl et al., Combined computational and cellular screening identifies synergistic inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by lenvatinib and remdesivir, Journal of General Virology, doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001625
Rapid repurposing of existing drugs as new therapeutics for COVID-19 has been an important strategy in the management of disease severity during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we used high-throughput docking to screen 6000 compounds within the DrugBank library for their potential to bind and inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 3 CL main protease, a chymotrypsin-like enzyme that is essential for viral replication. For 19 candidate hits, parallel in vitro fluorescence-based protease-inhibition assays and Vero-CCL81 cell-based SARS-CoV-2 replication-inhibition assays were performed. One hit, diclazuril (an investigational anti-protozoal compound), was validated as a SARS-CoV-2 3 CL main protease inhibitor in vitro (IC50 value of 29 µM) and modestly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero-CCL81 cells. Another hit, lenvatinib (approved for use in humans as an anti-cancer treatment), could not be validated as a SARS-CoV-2 3 CL main protease inhibitor in vitro, but serendipitously exhibited a striking functional synergy with the approved nucleoside analogue remdesivir to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication, albeit this was specific to Vero-CCL81 cells. Lenvatinib is a broadly-acting host receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, but the synergistic effect with remdesivir was not observed with other approved RTK inhibitors (such as pazopanib or sunitinib), suggesting that the mechanism-of-action is independent of host RTKs. Furthermore, time-of-addition studies revealed that lenvatinib/remdesivir synergy probably targets SARS-CoV-2 replication subsequent to host-cell entry. Our work shows that combining computational and cellular screening is a means to identify existing drugs with repurposing potential as antiviral compounds. Future studies could be aimed at understanding and optimizing the lenvatinib/remdesivir synergistic mechanism as a therapeutic option.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Hosseini et al., Computational molecular docking and virtual screening revealed promising SARS-CoV-2 drugs, Precision Clinical Medicine, doi:10.1093/pcmedi/pbab001
AbstractThe pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rampaged the world, with more than 58.4 million confirmed cases and over 1.38 million deaths across the world by 23 November 2020. There is an urgent need to identify effective drugs and vaccines to fight against the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the family of coronaviruses consisting of four structural and 16 non-structural proteins (NSP). Three non-structural proteins, main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), are believed to have a crucial role in replication of the virus. We applied computational ligand-receptor binding modeling and performed comprehensive virtual screening on FDA-approved drugs against these three SARS-CoV-2 proteins using AutoDock Vina, Glide, and rDock. Our computational studies identified six novel ligands as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2, including antiemetics rolapitant and ondansetron for Mpro; labetalol and levomefolic acid for PLpro; and leucal and antifungal natamycin for RdRp. Molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stability of the ligand-protein complexes. The results of our analysis with some other suggested drugs indicated that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine had high binding energy (low inhibitory effect) with all three proteins—Mpro, PLpro, and RdRp. In summary, our computational molecular docking approach and virtual screening identified some promising candidate SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors that may be considered for further clinical studies.
Cecon et al., Melatonin drugs inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into the brain and virus-induced damage of cerebral small vessels, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.12.30.474561
COVID-19 is a complex disease with short- and long-term respiratory, inflammatory and neurological symptoms that are triggered by the infection with SARS-CoV-2. Invasion of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 has been observed in humans and is postulated to be involved in post COVID condition. Brain infection is particularly pronounced in the K18-hACE2 mouse model of COVID-19. Here, we show that treatment of K18-hACE2 mice with melatonin and two melatonin-derived marketed drugs, agomelatine and ramelteon, prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry in the brain thereby reducing virus-induced damage of small cerebral vessels, immune cell infiltration and brain inflammation. Brain entry of SARS-CoV-2 through endothelial cells is prevented by melatonin through allosteric binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which interferes with the cell entry receptor function of ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2. Our findings open new perspectives for the repurposing of melatonergic drugs in the prevention of brain infection by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19-related long-term neurological symptoms.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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