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Punicalagin for COVID-19

Punicalagin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Szabó et al., Natural products as a source of Coronavirus entry inhibitors, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2024.1353971
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant and lasting impact on the world. Four years on, despite the existence of effective vaccines, the continuous emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a challenge for long-term immunity. Additionally, there remain few purpose-built antivirals to protect individuals at risk of severe disease in the event of future coronavirus outbreaks. A promising mechanism of action for novel coronavirus antivirals is the inhibition of viral entry. To facilitate entry, the coronavirus spike glycoprotein interacts with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on respiratory epithelial cells. Blocking this interaction and consequently viral replication may be an effective strategy for treating infection, however further research is needed to better characterize candidate molecules with antiviral activity before progressing to animal studies and clinical trials. In general, antiviral drugs are developed from purely synthetic compounds or synthetic derivatives of natural products such as plant secondary metabolites. While the former is often favored due to the higher specificity afforded by rational drug design, natural products offer several unique advantages that make them worthy of further study including diverse bioactivity and the ability to work synergistically with other drugs. Accordingly, there has recently been a renewed interest in natural product-derived antivirals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides a summary of recent research into coronavirus entry inhibitors, with a focus on natural compounds derived from plants, honey, and marine sponges.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Wang et al., Stand Up to Stand Out: Natural Dietary Polyphenols Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Gossypol as Potential Therapeutic Candidates against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15183885
The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated collaborative drug discovery efforts in academia and the industry with the aim of developing therapies and vaccines that target SARS-CoV-2. Several novel therapies have been approved and deployed in the last three years. However, their clinical application has revealed limitations due to the rapid emergence of viral variants. Therefore, the development of next-generation SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic agents with a high potency and safety profile remains a high priority for global health. Increasing awareness of the “back to nature” approach for improving human health has prompted renewed interest in natural products, especially dietary polyphenols, as an additional therapeutic strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 patients, owing to its good safety profile, exceptional nutritional value, health-promoting benefits (including potential antiviral properties), affordability, and availability. Herein, we describe the biological properties and pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of dietary polyphenols curcumin, resveratrol, and gossypol as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of dietary polyphenols and to obtain maximal benefits, several strategies such as nanotechnology (e.g., curcumin-incorporated nanofibrous membranes with antibacterial-antiviral ability), lead optimization (e.g., a methylated analog of curcumin), combination therapies (e.g., a specific combination of plant extracts and micronutrients), and broad-spectrum activities (e.g., gossypol broadly inhibits coronaviruses) have also been emphasized as positive factors in the facilitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug development to support effective long-term pandemic management and control.
Tam et al., Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Proteins, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms241613002
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped respiratory β coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), leading to a deadly pandemic that has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Like other coronaviruses, the SARS-CoV-2 genome also codes for non-structural proteins (NSPs). These NSPs are found within open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and encode NSP1 to NSP11 and NSP12 to NSP16, respectively. This study aimed to collect the available literature regarding NSP inhibitors. In addition, we searched the natural product database looking for similar structures. The results showed that similar structures could be tested as potential inhibitors of the NSPs.
Low et al., COVID-19 Therapeutic Potential of Natural Products, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24119589
Despite the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and management are now considerably regulated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component), have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Their abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and readily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
Alexova et al., Anti-COVID-19 Potential of Ellagic Acid and Polyphenols of Punica granatum L., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28093772
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, including ellagitannins and ellagic acid. The plant is used in traditional medicine, and its purified components can provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and support of host defenses during viral infection and recovery from disease. Current data show that pomegranate polyphenol extract and its ellagitannin components and metabolites exert their beneficial effects by controlling immune cell infiltration, regulating the cytokine secretion and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and by modulating the activity of the NFκB pathway. In vitro, pomegranate extracts and ellagitannins interact with and inhibit the infectivity of a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In silico docking studies show that ellagitannins bind to several SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins, including a number of proteases. This warrants further exploration of polyphenol–viral and polyphenol–host interactions in in vitro and in vivo studies. Pomegranate extracts, ellagitannins and ellagic acid are promising agents to target the SARS-CoV-2 virus and to restrict the host inflammatory response to viral infections, as well as to supplement the depleted host antioxidant levels during the stage of recovery from COVID-19.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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