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Neferine for COVID-19

Neferine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Shah et al., In-silico evaluation of natural alkaloids against the main protease and spike glycoprotein as potential therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0294769
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in global fatalities since late December 2019. Alkaloids play a significant role in drug design for various antiviral diseases, which makes them viable candidates for treating COVID-19. To identify potential antiviral agents, 102 known alkaloids were subjected to docking studies against the two key targets of SARS-CoV-2, namely the spike glycoprotein and main protease. The spike glycoprotein is vital for mediating viral entry into host cells, and main protease plays a crucial role in viral replication; therefore, they serve as compelling targets for therapeutic intervention in combating the disease. From the selection of alkaloids, the top 6 dual inhibitory compounds, namely liensinine, neferine, isoliensinine, fangchinoline, emetine, and acrimarine F, emerged as lead compounds with favorable docked scores. Interestingly, most of them shared the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid framework and belong to Nelumbo nucifera, commonly known as the lotus plant. Docking analysis was conducted by considering the key active site residues of the selected proteins. The stability of the top three ligands with the receptor proteins was further validated through dynamic simulation analysis. The leads underwent ADMET profiling, bioactivity score analysis, and evaluation of drug-likeness and physicochemical properties. Neferine demonstrated a particularly strong affinity for binding, with a docking score of -7.5025 kcal/mol for main protease and -10.0245 kcal/mol for spike glycoprotein, and therefore a strong interaction with both target proteins. Of the lead alkaloids, emetine and fangchinoline demonstrated the lowest toxicity and high LD50 values. These top alkaloids, may support the body’s defense and reduce the symptoms by their numerous biological potentials, even though some properties naturally point to their direct antiviral nature. These findings demonstrate the promising anti-COVID-19 properties of the six selected alkaloids, making them potential candidates for drug design. This study will be beneficial in effective drug discovery and design against COVID-19 with negligible side effects.
Wang et al., Stand Up to Stand Out: Natural Dietary Polyphenols Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Gossypol as Potential Therapeutic Candidates against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15183885
The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated collaborative drug discovery efforts in academia and the industry with the aim of developing therapies and vaccines that target SARS-CoV-2. Several novel therapies have been approved and deployed in the last three years. However, their clinical application has revealed limitations due to the rapid emergence of viral variants. Therefore, the development of next-generation SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic agents with a high potency and safety profile remains a high priority for global health. Increasing awareness of the “back to nature” approach for improving human health has prompted renewed interest in natural products, especially dietary polyphenols, as an additional therapeutic strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 patients, owing to its good safety profile, exceptional nutritional value, health-promoting benefits (including potential antiviral properties), affordability, and availability. Herein, we describe the biological properties and pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of dietary polyphenols curcumin, resveratrol, and gossypol as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of dietary polyphenols and to obtain maximal benefits, several strategies such as nanotechnology (e.g., curcumin-incorporated nanofibrous membranes with antibacterial-antiviral ability), lead optimization (e.g., a methylated analog of curcumin), combination therapies (e.g., a specific combination of plant extracts and micronutrients), and broad-spectrum activities (e.g., gossypol broadly inhibits coronaviruses) have also been emphasized as positive factors in the facilitation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug development to support effective long-term pandemic management and control.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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