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Navitoclax for COVID-19

Navitoclax has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Freidel et al., Research Progress on Spike-Dependent SARS-CoV-2 Fusion Inhibitors and Small Molecules Targeting the S2 Subunit of Spike, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16050712
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive drug repurposing efforts have sought to identify small-molecule antivirals with various mechanisms of action. Here, we aim to review research progress on small-molecule viral entry and fusion inhibitors that directly bind to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Early in the pandemic, numerous small molecules were identified in drug repurposing screens and reported to be effective in in vitro SARS-CoV-2 viral entry or fusion inhibitors. However, given minimal experimental information regarding the exact location of small-molecule binding sites on Spike, it was unclear what the specific mechanism of action was or where the exact binding sites were on Spike for some inhibitor candidates. The work of countless researchers has yielded great progress, with the identification of many viral entry inhibitors that target elements on the S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD) or N-terminal domain (NTD) and disrupt the S1 receptor-binding function. In this review, we will also focus on highlighting fusion inhibitors that target inhibition of the S2 fusion function, either by disrupting the formation of the postfusion S2 conformation or alternatively by stabilizing structural elements of the prefusion S2 conformation to prevent conformational changes associated with S2 function. We highlight experimentally validated binding sites on the S1/S2 interface and on the S2 subunit. While most substitutions to the Spike protein to date in variants of concern (VOCs) have been localized to the S1 subunit, the S2 subunit sequence is more conserved, with only a few observed substitutions in proximity to S2 binding sites. Several recent small molecules targeting S2 have been shown to have robust activity over recent VOC mutant strains and/or greater broad-spectrum antiviral activity for other more distantly related coronaviruses.
Schake et al., An interaction-based drug discovery screen explains known SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors and predicts new compound scaffolds, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-35671-x
AbstractThe recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown the necessity for fast and broad drug discovery methods to enable us to react quickly to novel and highly infectious diseases. A well-known SARS-CoV-2 target is the viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro), known to control coronavirus replication, which is essential for the viral life cycle. Here, we applied an interaction-based drug repositioning algorithm on all protein-compound complexes available in the protein database (PDB) to identify Mpro inhibitors and potential novel compound scaffolds against SARS-CoV-2. The screen revealed a heterogeneous set of 692 potential Mpro inhibitors containing known ones such as Dasatinib, Amodiaquine, and Flavin mononucleotide, as well as so far untested chemical scaffolds. In a follow-up evaluation, we used publicly available data published almost two years after the screen to validate our results. In total, we are able to validate 17% of the top 100 predictions with publicly available data and can furthermore show that predicted compounds do cover scaffolds that are yet not associated with Mpro. Finally, we detected a potentially important binding pattern consisting of 3 hydrogen bonds with hydrogen donors of an oxyanion hole within the active side of Mpro. Overall, these results give hope that we will be better prepared for future pandemics and that drug development will become more efficient in the upcoming years.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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