Naphazoline for COVID-19
Naphazoline has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
A clustering and graph deep learning-based framework for COVID-19 drug repurposing, arXiv, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2306.13995 ,
Drug repurposing (or repositioning) is the process of finding new therapeutic uses for drugs already approved by drug regulatory authorities (e.g., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)) for other diseases. This involves analyzing the interactions between different biological entities, such as drug targets (genes/proteins and biological pathways) and drug properties, to discover novel drug-target or drug-disease relations. Artificial intelligence methods such as machine learning and deep learning have successfully analyzed complex heterogeneous data in the biomedical domain and have also been used for drug repurposing. This study presents a novel unsupervised machine learning framework that utilizes a graph-based autoencoder for multi-feature type clustering on heterogeneous drug data. The dataset consists of 438 drugs, of which 224 are under clinical trials for COVID-19 (category A). The rest are systematically filtered to ensure the safety and efficacy of the treatment (category B). The framework solely relies on reported drug data, including its pharmacological properties, chemical/physical properties, interaction with the host, and efficacy in different publicly available COVID-19 assays. Our machine-learning framework reveals three clusters of interest and provides recommendations featuring the top 15 drugs for COVID-19 drug repurposing, which were shortlisted based on the predicted clusters that were dominated by category A drugs. The anti-COVID efficacy of the drugs should be verified by experimental studies. Our framework can be extended to support other datasets and drug repurposing studies, given open-source code and data availability.
FDA-Approved Drugs with Potent In Vitro Antiviral Activity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph13120443 ,
(1) Background: Drug repositioning is an unconventional drug discovery approach to explore new therapeutic benefits of existing drugs. Currently, it emerges as a rapid avenue to alleviate the COVID-19 pandemic disease. (2) Methods: Herein, we tested the antiviral activity of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, commonly prescribed to relieve respiratory symptoms, against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the viral causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. (3) Results: Of these FDA-approved antimicrobial drugs, Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide showed a promising ability to hinder the replication of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate, with IC50 of 0.32, 0.16, and 1.29 µM, respectively. We provided evidence that several antihistamine and anti-inflammatory drugs could partially reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Furthermore, this study showed that Azithromycin can selectively impair SARS-CoV-2 replication, but not the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). A virtual screening study illustrated that Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide bind to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Protein data bank (PDB) ID: 6lu7) in binding mode similar to the reported co-crystalized ligand. Also, Niclosamide displayed hydrogen bond (HB) interaction with the key peptide moiety GLN: 493A of the spike glycoprotein active site. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that Piroxicam should be prescribed in combination with Azithromycin for COVID-19 patients.
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