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MG132 for COVID-19

MG132 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Zeng et al., Calpain-2 mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry via regulating ACE2 levels, mBio, doi:10.1128/mbio.02287-23
ABSTRACT Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, much effort has been dedicated to identifying effective antivirals against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A number of calpain inhibitors show excellent antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 by targeting the viral main protease (M pro ), which plays an essential role in processing viral polyproteins. In this study, we found that calpain inhibitors potently inhibited the infection of a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but not M pro . In contrast, calpain inhibitors did not exhibit antiviral activities toward the wild-type VSV with its native glycoprotein. Genetic knockout of calpain-2 by CRISPR/Cas9 conferred resistance of the host cells to the chimeric VSV-SARS-CoV-2 virus and a clinical isolate of wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Mechanistically, calpain-2 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell attachment by positively regulating the cell surface levels of ACE2. These results highlight an M pro -independent pathway targeted by calpain inhibitors for efficient viral inhibition. We also identify calpain-2 as a novel host factor and a potential therapeutic target responsible for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the entry step. IMPORTANCE Many efforts in small-molecule screens have been made to counter SARS-CoV-2 infection by targeting the viral main protease, the major element that processes viral proteins after translation. Here, we discovered that calpain inhibitors further block SARS-CoV-2 infection in a main protease-independent manner. We identified the host cysteine protease calpain-2 as an important positive regulator of the cell surface levels of SARS-CoV-2 cellular receptor ACE2 and, thus, a facilitator of viral infection. By either pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of calpain-2, the SARS-CoV-2 binding to host cells is blocked and viral infection is decreased. Our findings highlight a novel mechanism of ACE2 regulation, which presents a potential new therapeutic target. Since calpain inhibitors also potently interfere with the viral main protease, our data also provide a mechanistic understanding of the potential use of calpain inhibitors as dual inhibitors (entry and replication) in the clinical setting of COVID-19 diseases. Our findings bring mechanistic insights into the cellular process of SARS-CoV-2 entry and offer a novel explanation to the mechanism of activities of calpain inhibitors.
Dittmar et al., Drug repurposing screens reveal FDA approved drugs active against SARS-Cov-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.161042
AbstractThere are an urgent need for antivirals to treat the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2. To identify new candidates we screened a repurposing library of ~3,000 drugs. Screening in Vero cells found few antivirals, while screening in human Huh7.5 cells validated 23 diverse antiviral drugs. Extending our studies to lung epithelial cells, we found that there are major differences in drug sensitivity and entry pathways used by SARS-CoV-2 in these cells. Entry in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells is pH-independent and requires TMPRSS2, while entry in Vero and Huh7.5 cells requires low pH and triggering by acid-dependent endosomal proteases. Moreover, we found 9 drugs are antiviral in lung cells, 7 of which have been tested in humans, and 3 are FDA approved including Cyclosporine which we found is targeting Cyclophilin rather than Calcineurin for its antiviral activity. These antivirals reveal essential host targets and have the potential for rapid clinical implementation.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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