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Mesalazine for COVID-19

Mesalazine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Zhou et al., Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2, Cell Discovery, doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0153-3
AbstractHuman coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, also known as SARS-CoV-2), lead global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no effective drugs targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Drug repurposing, representing as an effective drug discovery strategy from existing drugs, could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. In this study, we present an integrative, antiviral drug repurposing methodology implementing a systems pharmacology-based network medicine platform, quantifying the interplay between the HCoV–host interactome and drug targets in the human protein–protein interaction network. Phylogenetic analyses of 15 HCoV whole genomes reveal that 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity with SARS-CoV (79.7%). Specifically, the envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 are two evolutionarily conserved regions, having the sequence identities of 96% and 89.6%, respectively, compared to SARS-CoV. Using network proximity analyses of drug targets and HCoV–host interactions in the human interactome, we prioritize 16 potential anti-HCoV repurposable drugs (e.g., melatonin, mercaptopurine, and sirolimus) that are further validated by enrichment analyses of drug-gene signatures and HCoV-induced transcriptomics data in human cell lines. We further identify three potential drug combinations (e.g., sirolimus plus dactinomycin, mercaptopurine plus melatonin, and toremifene plus emodin) captured by the “Complementary Exposure” pattern: the targets of the drugs both hit the HCoV–host subnetwork, but target separate neighborhoods in the human interactome network. In summary, this study offers powerful network-based methodologies for rapid identification of candidate repurposable drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.
Chen et al., Prediction of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) 3C-like protease (3CLpro) structure: virtual screening reveals velpatasvir, ledipasvir, and other drug repurposing candidates, F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.22457.2
<ns4:p>We prepared the three-dimensional model of the SARS-CoV-2 (aka 2019-nCoV) 3C-like protease (3CL<ns4:sup>pro</ns4:sup>) using the crystal structure of the highly similar (96% identity) ortholog from the SARS-CoV. All residues involved in the catalysis, substrate binding and dimerisation are 100% conserved. Comparison of the polyprotein PP1AB sequences showed 86% identity. The 3C-like cleavage sites on the coronaviral polyproteins are highly conserved. Based on the near-identical substrate specificities and high sequence identities, we are of the opinion that some of the previous progress of specific inhibitors development for the SARS-CoV enzyme can be conferred on its SARS-CoV-2 counterpart. With the 3CL<ns4:sup>pro</ns4:sup> molecular model, we performed virtual screening for purchasable drugs and proposed 16 candidates for consideration. Among these, the antivirals ledipasvir or velpatasvir are particularly attractive as therapeutics to combat the new coronavirus with minimal side effects, commonly fatigue and headache. The drugs Epclusa (velpatasvir/sofosbuvir) and Harvoni (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) could be very effective owing to their dual inhibitory actions on two viral enzymes.</ns4:p>
Gysi et al., Network Medicine Framework for Identifying Drug Repurposing Opportunities for COVID-19, arXiv, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2004.07229
The current pandemic has highlighted the need for methodologies that can quickly and reliably prioritize clinically approved compounds for their potential effectiveness for SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the past decade, network medicine has developed and validated multiple predictive algorithms for drug repurposing, exploiting the sub-cellular network-based relationship between a drug's targets and disease genes. Here, we deployed algorithms relying on artificial intelligence, network diffusion, and network proximity, tasking each of them to rank 6,340 drugs for their expected efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. To test the predictions, we used as ground truth 918 drugs that had been experimentally screened in VeroE6 cells, and the list of drugs under clinical trial, that capture the medical community's assessment of drugs with potential COVID-19 efficacy. We find that while most algorithms offer predictive power for these ground truth data, no single method offers consistently reliable outcomes across all datasets and metrics. This prompted us to develop a multimodal approach that fuses the predictions of all algorithms, showing that a consensus among the different predictive methods consistently exceeds the performance of the best individual pipelines. We find that 76 of the 77 drugs that successfully reduced viral infection do not bind the proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that these drugs rely on network-based actions that cannot be identified using docking-based strategies. These advances offer a methodological pathway to identify repurposable drugs for future pathogens and neglected diseases underserved by the costs and extended timeline of de novo drug development.
Bansal et al., A clustering and graph deep learning-based framework for COVID-19 drug repurposing, arXiv, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2306.13995
Drug repurposing (or repositioning) is the process of finding new therapeutic uses for drugs already approved by drug regulatory authorities (e.g., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)) for other diseases. This involves analyzing the interactions between different biological entities, such as drug targets (genes/proteins and biological pathways) and drug properties, to discover novel drug-target or drug-disease relations. Artificial intelligence methods such as machine learning and deep learning have successfully analyzed complex heterogeneous data in the biomedical domain and have also been used for drug repurposing. This study presents a novel unsupervised machine learning framework that utilizes a graph-based autoencoder for multi-feature type clustering on heterogeneous drug data. The dataset consists of 438 drugs, of which 224 are under clinical trials for COVID-19 (category A). The rest are systematically filtered to ensure the safety and efficacy of the treatment (category B). The framework solely relies on reported drug data, including its pharmacological properties, chemical/physical properties, interaction with the host, and efficacy in different publicly available COVID-19 assays. Our machine-learning framework reveals three clusters of interest and provides recommendations featuring the top 15 drugs for COVID-19 drug repurposing, which were shortlisted based on the predicted clusters that were dominated by category A drugs. The anti-COVID efficacy of the drugs should be verified by experimental studies. Our framework can be extended to support other datasets and drug repurposing studies, given open-source code and data availability.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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