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MCC950 for COVID-19

MCC950 has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Zhang et al., SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a Protein as a Therapeutic Target against COVID-19 and Long-Term Post-Infection Effects, Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens13010075
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed unparalleled challenges due to its rapid transmission, ability to mutate, high mortality and morbidity, and enduring health complications. Vaccines have exhibited effectiveness, but their efficacy diminishes over time while new variants continue to emerge. Antiviral medications offer a viable alternative, but their success has been inconsistent. Therefore, there remains an ongoing need to identify innovative antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 and its post-infection complications. The ORF3a (open reading frame 3a) protein found in SARS-CoV-2, represents a promising target for antiviral treatment due to its multifaceted role in viral pathogenesis, cytokine storms, disease severity, and mortality. ORF3a contributes significantly to viral pathogenesis by facilitating viral assembly and release, essential processes in the viral life cycle, while also suppressing the body’s antiviral responses, thus aiding viral replication. ORF3a also has been implicated in triggering excessive inflammation, characterized by NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death and tissue damage in the lungs, kidneys, and the central nervous system. Additionally, ORF3a triggers the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, inciting a cytokine storm, which is a major contributor to the severity of the disease and subsequent mortality. As with the spike protein, ORF3a also undergoes mutations, and certain mutant variants correlate with heightened disease severity in COVID-19. These mutations may influence viral replication and host cellular inflammatory responses. While establishing a direct link between ORF3a and mortality is difficult, its involvement in promoting inflammation and exacerbating disease severity likely contributes to higher mortality rates in severe COVID-19 cases. This review offers a comprehensive and detailed exploration of ORF3a’s potential as an innovative antiviral drug target. Additionally, we outline potential strategies for discovering and developing ORF3a inhibitor drugs to counteract its harmful effects, alleviate tissue damage, and reduce the severity of COVID-19 and its lingering complications.
Yuan et al., The role of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-023-01580-8
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), showing high infectiousness, resulted in an ongoing pandemic termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 cases often experience acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has caused millions of deaths. Apart from triggering inflammatory and immune responses, many viral infections can cause programmed cell death in infected cells. Cell death mechanisms have a vital role in maintaining a suitable environment to achieve normal cell functionality. Nonetheless, these processes are dysregulated, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. Over the past decades, multiple cell death pathways are becoming better understood. Growing evidence suggests that the induction of cell death by the coronavirus may significantly contributes to viral infection and pathogenicity. However, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with cell death, together with its associated mechanisms, is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence concerning the molecular modulation of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as viral-host interactions, which may shed new light on antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2.
Wang et al., Inflammasomes: a rising star on the horizon of COVID-19 pathophysiology, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1185233
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a contagious respiratory virus that is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has posed a serious threat to public health. COVID-19 is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild cold-like symptoms, severe pneumonia or even death. Inflammasomes are supramolecular signaling platforms that assemble in response to danger or microbial signals. Upon activation, inflammasomes mediate innate immune defense by favoring the release of proinflammatory cytokines and triggering pyroptotic cell death. Nevertheless, abnormalities in inflammasome functioning can result in a variety of human diseases such as autoimmune disorders and cancer. A growing body of evidence has showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce inflammasome assembly. Dysregulated inflammasome activation and consequent cytokine burst have been associated with COVID-19 severity, alluding to the implication of inflammasomes in COVID-19 pathophysiology. Accordingly, an improved understanding of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cascades in COVID-19 is essential to uncover the immunological mechanisms of COVID-19 pathology and identify effective therapeutic approaches for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and inflammasomes and the contribution of activated inflammasomes to COVID-19 progression. We dissect the mechanisms involving the inflammasome machinery in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. In addition, we provide an overview of inflammasome-targeted therapies or antagonists that have potential clinical utility in COVID-19 treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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