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Irinotecan for COVID-19

Irinotecan has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Tsai et al., Translating GWAS Findings to Inform Drug Repositioning Strategies for COVID-19 Treatment, Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Abstract We developed a computational framework that integrates Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS analyses, designed to facilitate drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment. The comprehensive approach combines transcriptomic-wide associations, polygenic priority scoring, 3D genomics, viral-host protein-protein interactions, and small-molecule docking. Through GWAS, we identified nine druggable host genes associated with COVID-19 severity and SARS-CoV-2 infection, all of which show differential expression in COVID-19 patients. These genes include IFNAR1, IFNAR2, TYK2, IL10RB, CXCR6, CCR9, and OAS1. We performed an extensive molecular docking analysis of these targets using 553 small molecules derived from five therapeutically enriched categories, namely antibacterials, antivirals, antineoplastics, immunosuppressants, and anti-inflammatories. This analysis, which comprised over 20,000 individual docking analyses, enabled the identification of several promising drug candidates. All results are available via the DockCoV2 database ( The computational framework ultimately identified nine potential drug candidates: Peginterferon alfa-2b, Interferon alfa-2b, Interferon beta-1b, Ruxolitinib, Dactinomycin, Rolitetracycline, Irinotecan, Vinblastine, and Oritavancin. While its current focus is on COVID-19, our proposed computational framework can be applied more broadly to assist in drug repurposing efforts for a variety of diseases. Overall, this study underscores the potential of human genetic studies and the utility of a computational framework for drug repurposing in the context of COVID-19 treatment, providing a valuable resource for researchers in this field.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Chen et al., Prediction of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) 3C-like protease (3CLpro) structure: virtual screening reveals velpatasvir, ledipasvir, and other drug repurposing candidates, F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.22457.2
<ns4:p>We prepared the three-dimensional model of the SARS-CoV-2 (aka 2019-nCoV) 3C-like protease (3CL<ns4:sup>pro</ns4:sup>) using the crystal structure of the highly similar (96% identity) ortholog from the SARS-CoV. All residues involved in the catalysis, substrate binding and dimerisation are 100% conserved. Comparison of the polyprotein PP1AB sequences showed 86% identity. The 3C-like cleavage sites on the coronaviral polyproteins are highly conserved. Based on the near-identical substrate specificities and high sequence identities, we are of the opinion that some of the previous progress of specific inhibitors development for the SARS-CoV enzyme can be conferred on its SARS-CoV-2 counterpart. With the 3CL<ns4:sup>pro</ns4:sup> molecular model, we performed virtual screening for purchasable drugs and proposed 16 candidates for consideration. Among these, the antivirals ledipasvir or velpatasvir are particularly attractive as therapeutics to combat the new coronavirus with minimal side effects, commonly fatigue and headache. The drugs Epclusa (velpatasvir/sofosbuvir) and Harvoni (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir) could be very effective owing to their dual inhibitory actions on two viral enzymes.</ns4:p>
Ramírez Salinas et al., In Silico Screening of Drugs That Target Different Forms of E Protein for Potential Treatment of COVID-19, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16020296
Recently the E protein of SARS-CoV-2 has become a very important target in the potential treatment of COVID-19 since it is known to regulate different stages of the viral cycle. There is biochemical evidence that E protein exists in two forms, as monomer and homopentamer. An in silico screening analysis was carried out employing 5852 ligands (from Zinc databases), and performing an ADMET analysis, remaining a set of 2155 compounds. Furthermore, docking analysis was performed on specific sites and different forms of the E protein. From this study we could identify that the following ligands showed the highest binding affinity: nilotinib, dutasteride, irinotecan, saquinavir and alectinib. We carried out some molecular dynamics simulations and free energy MM–PBSA calculations of the protein–ligand complexes (with the mentioned ligands). Of worthy interest is that saquinavir, nilotinib and alectinib are also considered as a promising multitarget ligand because it seems to inhibit three targets, which play an important role in the viral cycle. On the other side, saquinavir was shown to be able to bind to E protein both in its monomeric as well as pentameric forms. Finally, further experimental assays are needed to probe our hypothesis derived from in silico studies.
Islam et al., Molecular-evaluated and explainable drug repurposing for COVID-19 using ensemble knowledge graph embedding, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30095-z
AbstractThe search for an effective drug is still urgent for COVID-19 as no drug with proven clinical efficacy is available. Finding the new purpose of an approved or investigational drug, known as drug repurposing, has become increasingly popular in recent years. We propose here a new drug repurposing approach for COVID-19, based on knowledge graph (KG) embeddings. Our approach learns “ensemble embeddings” of entities and relations in a COVID-19 centric KG, in order to get a better latent representation of the graph elements. Ensemble KG-embeddings are subsequently used in a deep neural network trained for discovering potential drugs for COVID-19. Compared to related works, we retrieve more in-trial drugs among our top-ranked predictions, thus giving greater confidence in our prediction for out-of-trial drugs. For the first time to our knowledge, molecular docking is then used to evaluate the predictions obtained from drug repurposing using KG embedding. We show that Fosinopril is a potential ligand for the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 target. We also provide explanations of our predictions thanks to rules extracted from the KG and instanciated by KG-derived explanatory paths. Molecular evaluation and explanatory paths bring reliability to our results and constitute new complementary and reusable methods for assessing KG-based drug repurposing.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in &gt; 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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