Ifenprodil for COVID-19
Ifenprodil has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
X-ray screening identifies active site and allosteric inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease, Science, doi:10.1126/science.abf7945 ,
A large-scale screen to target SARS-CoV-2 The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome is initially expressed as two large polyproteins. Its main protease, M pro , is essential to yield functional viral proteins, making it a key drug target. Günther et al. used x-ray crystallography to screen more than 5000 compounds that are either approved drugs or drugs in clinical trials. The screen identified 37 compounds that bind to M pro . High-resolution structures showed that most compounds bind at the active site but also revealed two allosteric sites where binding of a drug causes conformational changes that affect the active site. In cell-based assays, seven compounds had antiviral activity without toxicity. The most potent, calpeptin, binds covalently in the active site, whereas the second most potent, pelitinib, binds at an allosteric site. Science , this issue p. 642
Recent Advances in SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors: From Nirmatrelvir to Future Perspectives, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom13091339 ,
The main protease (Mpro) plays a pivotal role in the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is considered a highly conserved viral target. Disruption of the catalytic activity of Mpro produces a detrimental effect on the course of the infection, making this target one of the most attractive for the treatment of COVID-19. The current success of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor Nirmatrelvir, the first oral drug for the treatment of severe forms of COVID-19, has further focused the attention of researchers on this important viral target, making the search for new Mpro inhibitors a thriving and exciting field for the development of antiviral drugs active against SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses.
CuFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidinones as Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Surface Proteins—Insights from Molecular Docking Studies, Processes, doi:10.3390/pr11082294 ,
In this study, we present the highly efficient and rapid synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinone derivatives through an ultrasound-accelerated approach. We utilize copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysts, employing the well-known Biginelli reaction, under solvent-free conditions. The impact of the solvent, catalyst amount, and catalyst type on the reaction performance is thoroughly investigated. Our method offers several notable advantages, including facile catalyst separation, catalyst reusability for up to three cycles with the minimal loss of activity, a straightforward procedure, mild reaction conditions, and impressive yields, ranging from 79% to 95%, within short reaction times of 20 to 40 min. Furthermore, in the context of fighting COVID-19, we explore the potential of substituted dihydropyrimidinone derivatives as inhibitors of three crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins. These proteins, glycoproteins, and proteases play pivotal roles in the entry, replication, and spread of the virus. Peptides and antiviral drugs targeting these proteins hold great promise in the development of effective treatments. Through theoretical molecular docking studies, we compare the binding properties of the synthesized dihydropyrimidinone derivatives with the widely used hydroxychloroquine molecule as a reference. Our findings reveal that some of the tested molecules exhibit superior binding characteristics compared to hydroxychloroquine, while others demonstrate comparable results. These results highlight the potential of our synthesized derivatives as effective inhibitors in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.
Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845 ,
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Drugs for COVID-19 Treatment: A New Challenge, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, doi:10.1007/s12010-023-04439-4 ,
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