Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

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Heparin for COVID-19

Heparin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Ceja-Gálvez et al., Severe COVID-19: Drugs and Clinical Trials, Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12082893
By January of 2023, the COVID-19 pandemic had led to a reported total of 6,700,883 deaths and 662,631,114 cases worldwide. To date, there have been no effective therapies or standardized treatment schemes for this disease; therefore, the search for effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategies is a primary goal that must be addressed. This review aims to provide an analysis of the most efficient and promising therapies and drugs for the prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19, comparing their degree of success, scope, and limitations, with the aim of providing support to health professionals in choosing the best pharmacological approach. An investigation of the most promising and effective treatments against COVID-19 that are currently available was carried out by employing search terms including “Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19” or “Viral polymerase inhibitors” and “COVID-19” in the and PubMed databases. From the current perspective and with the information available from the various clinical trials assessing the efficacy of different therapeutic options, we conclude that it is necessary to standardize certain variables—such as the viral clearance time, biomarkers associated with severity, hospital stay, requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate—in order to facilitate verification of the efficacy of such treatments and to better assess the repeatability of the most effective and promising results.
Mousavi et al., Novel Drug Design for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies, Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1155/2022/2044282
Background. Since the beginning of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease outbreak, there has been an increasing interest in discovering potential therapeutic agents for this disease. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review through an overview of drug development (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) for treating COVID-19. Methods. A systematic search was carried out in major databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from December 2019 to March 2021. A combination of the following terms was used: coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, drug design, drug development, In silico, In vitro, and In vivo. A narrative synthesis was performed as a qualitative method for the data synthesis of each outcome measure. Results. A total of 2168 articles were identified through searching databases. Finally, 315 studies (266 in silico, 34 in vitro, and 15 in vivo) were included. In studies with in silico approach, 98 article study repurposed drug and 91 studies evaluated herbal medicine on COVID-19. Among 260 drugs repurposed by the computational method, the best results were observed with saquinavir (n = 9), ritonavir (n = 8), and lopinavir (n = 6). Main protease (n = 154) following spike glycoprotein (n = 62) and other nonstructural protein of virus (n = 45) was among the most studied targets. Doxycycline, chlorpromazine, azithromycin, heparin, bepridil, and glycyrrhizic acid showed both in silico and in vitro inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion. The preclinical studies of novel drug design for COVID-19 focused on main protease and spike glycoprotein as targets for antiviral development. From evaluated structures, saquinavir, ritonavir, eucalyptus, Tinospora cordifolia, aloe, green tea, curcumin, pyrazole, and triazole derivatives in in silico studies and doxycycline, chlorpromazine, and heparin from in vitro and human monoclonal antibodies from in vivo studies showed promised results regarding efficacy. It seems that due to the nature of COVID-19 disease, finding some drugs with multitarget antiviral actions and anti-inflammatory potential is valuable and some herbal medicines have this potential.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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