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Griffithsin for COVID-19

Griffithsin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Bains et al., The Antiviral Activity of the Lectin Griffithsin against SARS-CoV-2 Is Enhanced by the Presence of Structural Proteins, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15122452
Although COVID-19 transmission has been reduced by the advent of vaccinations and a variety of rapid monitoring techniques, the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself has shown a remarkable ability to mutate and persist. With this long track record of immune escape, researchers are still exploring prophylactic treatments to curtail future SARS-CoV-2 variants. Specifically, much focus has been placed on the antiviral lectin Griffithsin in preventing spike protein-mediated infection via the hACE2 receptor (direct infection). However, an oft-overlooked aspect of SARS-CoV-2 infection is viral capture by attachment receptors such as DC-SIGN, which is thought to facilitate the initial stages of COVID-19 infection in the lung tissue (called trans-infection). In addition, while immune escape is dictated by mutations in the spike protein, coronaviral virions also incorporate M, N, and E structural proteins within the particle. In this paper, we explored how several structural facets of both the SARS-CoV-2 virion and the antiviral lectin Griffithsin can affect and attenuate the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. We found that Griffithsin was a better inhibitor of hACE2-mediated direct infection when the coronaviral M protein is present compared to when it is absent (possibly providing an explanation regarding why Griffithsin shows better inhibition against authentic SARS-CoV-2 as opposed to pseudotyped viruses, which generally do not contain M) and that Griffithsin was not an effective inhibitor of DC-SIGN-mediated trans-infection. Furthermore, we found that DC-SIGN appeared to mediate trans-infection exclusively via binding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with no significant effect observed when other viral proteins (M, N, and/or E) were present. These results provide etiological data that may help to direct the development of novel antiviral treatments, either by leveraging Griffithsin binding to the M protein as a novel strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection or by narrowing efforts to inhibit trans-infection to focus on DC-SIGN binding to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
Alsaidi et al., Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination Results in Antiviral Synergy against SARS-CoV-1 and 2 in a Pseudoviral Model, Marine Drugs, doi:10.3390/md19080418
Over 182 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than 4 million deaths have been reported to date around the world. It is essential to identify broad-spectrum antiviral agents that may prevent or treat infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) but also by other coronaviruses that may jump the species barrier in the future. We evaluated the antiviral selectivity of griffithsin and sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 using a cytotoxicity assay and a cell-based pseudoviral model. The half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) were determined for each compound, using a dose-response-inhibition analysis on GraphPad Prism v9.0.2 software (San Diego, CA, USA). The therapeutic index (TI = CC50/EC50) was calculated for each compound. The potential synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect of different compound combinations was determined by CalcuSyn v1 software (Biosoft, Cambridge, UK), which estimated the combination index (CI) values. Iota and lambda carrageenan showed the most potent antiviral activity (EC50 between 3.2 and 7.5 µg/mL). Carrageenan and griffithsin combinations exhibited synergistic activity (EC50 between 0.2 and 3.8 µg/mL; combination index <1), including against recent SARS-CoV-2 mutations. The griffithsin and carrageenan combination is a promising candidate to prevent or treat infections by SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
N et al., Screening of Antiviral Efficacy of Few Seaweeds of Tamil Nadu Coast, Proceedings of Anticancer Research, doi:10.26689/par.v7i5.5161
Lately there has been a lot of interest worldwide in studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural secondary metabolites, notably marine polysaccharides. It has been established that polysaccharides made from marine sources and their derivatives have antiviral effects against potent viruses. Agricultural, biological, food, and pharmaceutical industries all make extensive use of goods obtained from algae. The most well-known chemical components found in algae are polysaccharides, which have been the subject of a variety of studies because of their varied bioactivities. Polysaccharides made from algae have recently risen to the top of pharmaceutical research due to their fascinating antiviral potential. Currently, COVID-19 can be prevented with vaccination, but the brown alga Sargassum wightii has several bioactive compounds that have the following qualities and may be a better option. S. wightii is one of the marine algae species that is rich in sulfated polysaccharides, the secondary metabolites which have antiviral action and the capacity to prevent viral proliferation. Fucoidan, a long-chain sulfated polysaccharide found in various brown algae, has potent antiviral effects. Additionally, sulfated polysaccharides from green algae (such as ulvans) and red algae (such as carrageenan), and lectins from red algae (such as griffithsin) have antiviral therapeutic agents against coronaviruses and other viruses. This research focuses on screening seaweeds for possible antiviral compounds to treat viral infections notably COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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