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Ginkgo biloba for COVID-19

Ginkgo biloba has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Ferreira et al., Potencialidades e riscos de espécies vegetais empregadas na terapêutica e/ou prevenção da COVID-19: revisão integrativa, OBSERVATÓRIO DE LA ECONOMÍA LATINOAMERICANA, doi:10.55905/oelv22n5-042
Desde o início da pandemia do novo coronavírus, houve grande preocupação diante de uma doença cujos possíveis impactos e morbidade ainda eram desconhecidos, iniciando, assim, uma corrida na descoberta de um tratamento para esta doença. Nesse sentido diversas pesquisas foram e estão sendo realizadas em busca de espécies vegetais passíveis de serem utilizadas na terapêutica da COVID-19. Portanto, esse estudo tem como objetivo realizar revisão de estudos etnodirigidos de espécies vegetais referenciadas na terapêutica e/ou prevenção da COVID-19. Foi realizada uma busca nas bases Scielo, LILACS e PubMed entre 2020 a 2022. Foram selecionados 32 artigos, predominando os de língua inglesa (n= 30), em 2021 (56,25%) e nos países Irã, Índia e Estados Unidos (15,62%); 86 espécies vegetais foram referidas, pertencentes a 51 famílias, com predomínio de Asteraceae e Laminaceae. As espécies mais referidas foram Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (4,65%) e Nigella sativa L. (3,48%), predominando o uso da raiz (29,4 %), preparadas como extrato aquoso (23,5%). Para futuros trabalhos, deve ser estimulada a continuidade dos estudos de validação com tais espécies, fundamentados na certificação de eficácia, segurança e qualidade; afim de minimizar os riscos do uso popular de produto inadequado e contribuir na pesquisa e desenvolvimento de um futuro bioproduto no tratamento do SARS-CoV-2.
Al-Jamal et al., Treating COVID-19 with Medicinal Plants: Is It Even Conceivable? A Comprehensive Review, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16030320
In 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenged the world with a global outbreak that led to millions of deaths worldwide. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the symptomatic manifestation of this virus, which can range from flu-like symptoms to utter clinical complications and even death. Since there was no clear medicine that could tackle this infection or lower its complications with minimal adverse effects on the patients’ health, the world health organization (WHO) developed awareness programs to lower the infection rate and limit the fast spread of this virus. Although vaccines have been developed as preventative tools, people still prefer going back to traditional herbal medicine, which provides remarkable health benefits that can either prevent the viral infection or limit the progression of severe symptoms through different mechanistic pathways with relatively insignificant side effects. This comprehensive review provides scientific evidence elucidating the effect of 10 different plants against SARS-CoV-2, paving the way for further studies to reconsider plant-based extracts, rich in bioactive compounds, into more advanced clinical assessments in order to identify their impact on patients suffering from COVID-19.
Ma et al., Integration of human organoids single‐cell transcriptomic profiles and human genetics repurposes critical cell type‐specific drug targets for severe COVID‐19, Cell Proliferation, doi:10.1111/cpr.13558
AbstractHuman organoids recapitulate the cell type diversity and function of their primary organs holding tremendous potentials for basic and translational research. Advances in single‐cell RNA sequencing (scRNA‐seq) technology and genome‐wide association study (GWAS) have accelerated the biological and therapeutic interpretation of trait‐relevant cell types or states. Here, we constructed a computational framework to integrate atlas‐level organoid scRNA‐seq data, GWAS summary statistics, expression quantitative trait loci, and gene–drug interaction data for distinguishing critical cell populations and drug targets relevant to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) severity. We found that 39 cell types across eight kinds of organoids were significantly associated with COVID‐19 outcomes. Notably, subset of lung mesenchymal stem cells increased proximity with fibroblasts predisposed to repair COVID‐19‐damaged lung tissue. Brain endothelial cell subset exhibited significant associations with severe COVID‐19, and this cell subset showed a notable increase in cell‐to‐cell interactions with other brain cell types, including microglia. We repurposed 33 druggable genes, including IFNAR2, TYK2, and VIPR2, and their interacting drugs for COVID‐19 in a cell‐type‐specific manner. Overall, our results showcase that host genetic determinants have cellular‐specific contribution to COVID‐19 severity, and identification of cell type‐specific drug targets may facilitate to develop effective therapeutics for treating severe COVID‐19 and its complications.
Akanchise et al., Ginkgo Biloba and Long COVID: In Vivo and In Vitro Models for the Evaluation of Nanotherapeutic Efficacy, Pharmaceutics, doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics15051562
Coronavirus infections are neuroinvasive and can provoke injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and long-term illness consequences. They may be associated with inflammatory processes due to cellular oxidative stress and an imbalanced antioxidant system. The ability of phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, such as Ginkgo biloba, to alleviate neurological complications and brain tissue damage has attracted strong ongoing interest in the neurotherapeutic management of long COVID. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb) contains several bioactive ingredients, e.g., bilobalide, quercetin, ginkgolides A–C, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and luteolin. They have various pharmacological and medicinal effects, including memory and cognitive improvement. Ginkgo biloba, through its anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities, impacts cognitive function and other illness conditions like those in long COVID. While preclinical research on the antioxidant therapies for neuroprotection has shown promising results, clinical translation remains slow due to several challenges (e.g., low drug bioavailability, limited half-life, instability, restricted delivery to target tissues, and poor antioxidant capacity). This review emphasizes the advantages of nanotherapies using nanoparticle drug delivery approaches to overcome these challenges. Various experimental techniques shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress response in the nervous system and help comprehend the pathophysiology of the neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To develop novel therapeutic agents and drug delivery systems, several methods for mimicking oxidative stress conditions have been used (e.g., lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors, and models of ischemic brain damage). We hypothesize the beneficial effects of EGb in the neurotherapeutic management of long-term COVID-19 symptoms, evaluated using either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models of oxidative stress.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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