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Forodesine for COVID-19

Forodesine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Yevsieieva et al., Main and papain-like proteases as prospective targets for pharmacological treatment of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, RSC Advances, doi:10.1039/d3ra06479d
The review outlines coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 morphology, life cycle, and essential proteins, focusing on a design strategy for dual-acting inhibitors for PLpro and Mpro proteases.
Schake et al., An interaction-based drug discovery screen explains known SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors and predicts new compound scaffolds, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-35671-x
AbstractThe recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown the necessity for fast and broad drug discovery methods to enable us to react quickly to novel and highly infectious diseases. A well-known SARS-CoV-2 target is the viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro), known to control coronavirus replication, which is essential for the viral life cycle. Here, we applied an interaction-based drug repositioning algorithm on all protein-compound complexes available in the protein database (PDB) to identify Mpro inhibitors and potential novel compound scaffolds against SARS-CoV-2. The screen revealed a heterogeneous set of 692 potential Mpro inhibitors containing known ones such as Dasatinib, Amodiaquine, and Flavin mononucleotide, as well as so far untested chemical scaffolds. In a follow-up evaluation, we used publicly available data published almost two years after the screen to validate our results. In total, we are able to validate 17% of the top 100 predictions with publicly available data and can furthermore show that predicted compounds do cover scaffolds that are yet not associated with Mpro. Finally, we detected a potentially important binding pattern consisting of 3 hydrogen bonds with hydrogen donors of an oxyanion hole within the active side of Mpro. Overall, these results give hope that we will be better prepared for future pandemics and that drug development will become more efficient in the upcoming years.
Rabie et al., Evaluation of a series of nucleoside analogs as effective anticoronaviral-2 drugs against the Omicron-B.1.1.529/BA.2 subvariant: A repurposing research study, Medicinal Chemistry Research, doi:10.1007/s00044-022-02970-3
AbstractMysterious evolution of a new strain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the Omicron variant, led to a new challenge in the persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) battle. Objecting the conserved SARS-CoV-2 enzymes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease (ExoN) together using one ligand is a successful new tactic to stop SARS-CoV-2 multiplication and COVID-19 progression. The current comprehensive study investigated most nucleoside analogs (NAs) libraries, searching for the most ideal drug candidates expectedly able to act through this double tactic. Gradual computational filtration afforded six different promising NAs, riboprine/forodesine/tecadenoson/nelarabine/vidarabine/maribavir. Further biological assessment proved that riboprine and forodesine are able to powerfully inhibit the replication of the new virulent strains of SARS-CoV-2 with extremely minute in vitro anti-RdRp and anti-SARS-CoV-2 EC50 values of about 0.21 and 0.45 μM for riboprine and about 0.23 and 0.70 μM for forodesine, respectively, surpassing both remdesivir and the new anti-COVID-19 drug molnupiravir. These biochemical findings were supported by the prior in silico data. Additionally, the ideal pharmacophoric features of riboprine and forodesine molecules render them typical dual-action inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication and proofreading. These findings suggest that riboprine and forodesine could serve as prospective lead compounds against COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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