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Fluspirilene for COVID-19

Fluspirilene has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Touret et al., In vitro screening of a FDA approved chemical library reveals potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.03.023846
SummaryA novel coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in 2019 from Hubei region in China and rapidly spread worldwide. As no approved therapeutics exists to treat Covid-19, the disease associated to SARS-Cov-2, there is an urgent need to propose molecules that could quickly enter into clinics. Repurposing of approved drugs is a strategy that can bypass the time consuming stages of drug development. In this study, we screened the Prestwick Chemical Library┬« composed of 1,520 approved drugs in an infected cell-based assay. 90 compounds were identified. The robustness of the screen was assessed by the identification of drugs, such as Chloroquine derivatives and protease inhibitors, already in clinical trials. The hits were sorted according to their chemical composition and their known therapeutic effect, then EC50 and CC50 were determined for a subset of compounds. Several drugs, such as Azithromycine, Opipramol, Quinidine or Omeprazol present antiviral potency with 2<EC50<20┬ÁM. By providing new information on molecules inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, this study could contribute to the short-term repurposing of drugs against Covid-19.
Weston et al., Broad anti-coronaviral activity of FDA approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and SARS-CoV in vivo, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.25.008482
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 emerged in China at the end of 2019 and has rapidly become a pandemic with roughly 2.7 million recorded COVID-19 cases and greater than 189,000 recorded deaths by April 23rd, 2020 (www.WHO.org). There are no FDA approved antivirals or vaccines for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Current treatments for COVID-19 are limited to supportive therapies and off-label use of FDA approved drugs. Rapid development and human testing of potential antivirals is greatly needed. A quick way to test compounds with potential antiviral activity is through drug repurposing. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use and subsequently there is a good understanding of their safety profiles and potential side effects, making them easier to fast-track to clinical studies in COVID-19 patients. Here, we present data on the antiviral activity of 20 FDA approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at a range of IC50 values at non-cytotoxic concentrations. We directly follow up with seven of these to demonstrate all are capable of inhibiting infectious SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we have evaluated two of these, chloroquine and chlorpromazine, in vivo using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV model and found both drugs protect mice from clinical disease.
Saul et al., Anticancer pan-ErbB inhibitors reduce inflammation and tissue injury and exert broad-spectrum antiviral effects, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.15.444128
AbstractTargeting host factors exploited by multiple viruses could offer broad-spectrum solutions for pandemic preparedness. Seventeen candidates targeting diverse functions emerged in a screen of 4,413 compounds for SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. We demonstrated that lapatinib and other approved inhibitors of the ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases suppress replication of SARS-CoV-2, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and other emerging viruses with a high barrier to resistance. Lapatinib suppressed SARS-CoV-2 entry and later stages of the viral life cycle and showed synergistic effect with the direct-acting antiviral nirmatrelvir. We discovered that ErbB1, 2 and 4 bind SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein and regulate viral and ACE2 internalization, and they are required for VEEV infection. In human lung organoids, lapatinib protected from SARS-CoV-2-induced activation of ErbB-regulated pathways implicated in non-infectious lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and epithelial barrier injury. Lapatinib suppressed VEEV replication, cytokine production and disruption of the blood-brain barrier integrity in microfluidic-based human neurovascular units, and reduced mortality in a lethal infection murine model. We validated lapatinib-mediated inhibition of ErbB activity as an important mechanism of antiviral action. These findings reveal regulation of viral replication, inflammation, and tissue injury via ErbBs and establish a proof-of-principle for a repurposed, ErbB-targeted approach to combat emerging viruses.
Weston et al., Broad Anti-coronavirus Activity of Food and Drug Administration-Approved Drugs against SARS-CoV-2 In Vitro and SARS-CoV In Vivo, Journal of Virology, doi:10.1128/jvi.01218-20
There are no FDA-approved antivirals for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use that may have antiviral activity and therefore could potentially be rapidly repurposed as antivirals. Here, we present data assessing the antiviral activity of 20 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in vitro . We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that they may have pan-anti-coronaviral activity. We directly followed up seven of these and found that they all inhibit infectious-SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we evaluated chloroquine and chlorpromazine in vivo using mouse-adapted SARS-CoV. We found that neither drug inhibited viral replication in the lungs, but both protected against clinical disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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