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Enzalutamide for COVID-19

Enzalutamide has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Qiao et al., Targeting transcriptional regulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2021450118
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, employs two key host proteins to gain entry and replicate within cells, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the cell surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). TMPRSS2 was first characterized as an androgen-regulated gene in the prostate. Supporting a role for sex hormones, males relative to females are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 in terms of mortality and morbidity. Several studies, including one employing a large epidemiological cohort, suggested that blocking androgen signaling is protective against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that androgens regulate the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and androgen receptor (AR) in subsets of lung epithelial cells. AR levels are markedly elevated in males relative to females greater than 70 y of age. In males greater than 70 y old, smoking was associated with elevated levels of AR and ACE2 in lung epithelial cells. Transcriptional repression of the AR enhanceosome with AR or bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) antagonists inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Taken together, these studies support further investigation of transcriptional inhibition of critical host factors in the treatment or prevention of COVID-19.
Leach et al., The antiandrogen enzalutamide downregulates TMPRSS2 and reduces cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24342-y
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide—a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer—reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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