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Emricasan for COVID-19

Emricasan has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Lei et al., Small molecules in the treatment of COVID-19, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-022-01249-8
AbstractThe outbreak of COVID-19 has become a global crisis, and brought severe disruptions to societies and economies. Until now, effective therapeutics against COVID-19 are in high demand. Along with our improved understanding of the structure, function, and pathogenic process of SARS-CoV-2, many small molecules with potential anti-COVID-19 effects have been developed. So far, several antiviral strategies were explored. Besides directly inhibition of viral proteins such as RdRp and Mpro, interference of host enzymes including ACE2 and proteases, and blocking relevant immunoregulatory pathways represented by JAK/STAT, BTK, NF-κB, and NLRP3 pathways, are regarded feasible in drug development. The development of small molecules to treat COVID-19 has been achieved by several strategies, including computer-aided lead compound design and screening, natural product discovery, drug repurposing, and combination therapy. Several small molecules representative by remdesivir and paxlovid have been proved or authorized emergency use in many countries. And many candidates have entered clinical-trial stage. Nevertheless, due to the epidemiological features and variability issues of SARS-CoV-2, it is necessary to continue exploring novel strategies against COVID-19. This review discusses the current findings in the development of small molecules for COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, their detailed mechanism of action, chemical structures, and preclinical and clinical efficacies are discussed.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Baker et al., A drug repurposing screen identifies hepatitis C antivirals as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV2 main protease, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0245962
Effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs are desperately needed. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) appears as an attractive target for drug development. We show that the existing pharmacopeia contains many drugs with potential for therapeutic repurposing as selective and potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We screened a collection of ~6,070 drugs with a previous history of use in humans for compounds that inhibit the activity of Mpro in vitro and found ~50 compounds with activity against Mpro. Subsequent dose validation studies demonstrated 8 dose responsive hits with an IC50 ≤ 50 μM. Hits from our screen are enriched with hepatitis C NS3/4A protease targeting drugs including boceprevir, ciluprevir. narlaprevir, and telaprevir. This work suggests previous large-scale commercial drug development initiatives targeting hepatitis C NS3/4A viral protease should be revisited because some previous lead compounds may be more potent against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro than boceprevir and suitable for rapid repurposing.
Yuan et al., The role of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-023-01580-8
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), showing high infectiousness, resulted in an ongoing pandemic termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 cases often experience acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has caused millions of deaths. Apart from triggering inflammatory and immune responses, many viral infections can cause programmed cell death in infected cells. Cell death mechanisms have a vital role in maintaining a suitable environment to achieve normal cell functionality. Nonetheless, these processes are dysregulated, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. Over the past decades, multiple cell death pathways are becoming better understood. Growing evidence suggests that the induction of cell death by the coronavirus may significantly contributes to viral infection and pathogenicity. However, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with cell death, together with its associated mechanisms, is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence concerning the molecular modulation of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as viral-host interactions, which may shed new light on antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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