Daphniphyllum glaucescens for COVID-19
Daphniphyllum glaucescens has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Dual Effects of 3-epi-betulin from Daphniphyllum glaucescens in Suppressing SARS-CoV-2-Induced Inflammation and Inhibiting Virus Entry, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms242317040 ,
The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to a protracted global COVID-19 pandemic with significant impacts on public health and global economy. While there are currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics, most of the FDA-approved antiviral agents directly target viral proteins. However, inflammation is the initial immune pathogenesis induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is still a need to find additional agents that can control the virus in the early stages of infection to alleviate disease progression for the next pandemic. Here, we find that both the spike protein and its receptor CD147 are crucial for inducing inflammation by SARS-CoV-2 in THP-1 monocytic cells. Moreover, we find that 3-epi-betulin, isolated from Daphniphyllum glaucescens, reduces the level of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2, consequently resulting in a decreased viral RNA accumulation and plaque formation. In addition, 3-epi-betulin displays a broad-spectrum inhibition of entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Eplison (B.1.429), Gamma (P1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (BA.1). Moreover, 3-epi-betulin potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection with an EC50 of <20 μM in Calu-3 lung epithelial cells. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the chemical interaction between the 3-epi-betulin and the spike protein, along with the critical amino acid residues in the spike protein that contribute to the inhibitory activity of 3-epi-betulin against virus entry. Taken together, our results suggest that 3-epi-betulin exhibits dual effect: it reduces SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation and inhibits virus entry, positioning it as a potential antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2.
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