Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
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Dapansutrile for COVID-19

Dapansutrile has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Lécuyer et al., The purinergic receptor P2X7 and the NLRP3 inflammasome are druggable host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 infection, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.05.531513
AbstractPurinergic receptors and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome regulate inflammation and viral infection, but their effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the purinergic receptor P2X7 and NLRP3 inflammasome are cellular host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lung autopsies from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reveal that NLRP3 expression is increased in host cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2 including alveolar macrophages, type II pneumocytes and syncytia arising from the fusion of infected macrophages, thus suggesting a potential role of NLRP3 and associated signaling pathways to both inflammation and viral replication. In vitro studies demonstrate that NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation is detected upon macrophage abortive infection. More importantly, a weak activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is also detected during the early steps of SARS-CoV-2 infection of epithelial cells and promotes the viral replication in these cells. Interestingly, the purinergic receptor P2X7, which is known to control NLRP3 inflammasome activation, also favors the replication of D614G and alpha SARS-CoV-2 variants. Altogether, our results reveal an unexpected relationship between the purinergic receptor P2X7, the NLRP3 inflammasome and the permissiveness to SARS-CoV-2 infection that offers novel opportunities for COVID-19 treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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