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Danoprevir for COVID-19

Danoprevir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Yin et al., Computational Screening of Repurposed Drugs Targeting Sars-Cov-2 Main Protease By Molecular Docking, Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences, doi:10.18502/sjms.v17i3.12125
Background: COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses significant global health and economic crisis that urges effective treatment.
 Methods: A total of 11 molecules (baricitinib, danoprevir, dexamethasone, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, lopinavir, methylprednisolone, remdesivir, ritonavir and saridegib, ascorbic acid, and cepharanthine) were selected for molecular docking studies using AutoDock VINA to study their antiviral activities via targeting SARS-CoV’s main protease (Mpro), a cysteine protease that mediates the maturation cleavage of polyproteins during virus replication.
 Results: Three drugs showed stronger binding affinity toward Mpro than N3 (active Mpro inhibitor as control): danoprevir (–7.7 kcal/mol), remdesivir (–8.1 kcal/mol), and saridegib (–7.8 kcal/mol). Two primary conventional hydrogen bonds were identified in the danoprevir-Mpro complex at GlyA:143 and GlnA:189, whereas the residue GluA:166 formed a carbon–hydrogen bond. Seven main conventional hydrogen bonds were identified in the remdesivir at AsnA:142, SerA:144, CysA:145, HisA:163, GluA:166, and GlnA:189, whereas two carbon–hydrogen bonds were formed by the residues HisA:41 and MetA:165. Cepharanthine showed a better binding affinity toward Mpro (–7.9 kcal/mol) than ascorbic acid (–5.4 kcal/mol). Four carbon–hydrogen bonds were formed in the cepharanthine-Mpro complex at HisA:164, ProA;168, GlnA;189, and ThrA:190.
 Conclusion: The findings of this study propose that these drugs are potentially inhibiting the SAR-CoV-2 virus by targeting the Mpro protein.
Talluri, S., Molecular Docking and Virtual Screening Based Prediction of Drugs for COVID-19, Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, doi:10.2174/1386207323666200814132149
Aims: To predict potential drugs for COVID-19 by using molecular docking for virtual screening of drugs approved for other clinical applications. Background: SARS-CoV-2 is the betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was listed as a potential global health threat by the WHO due to high mortality, high basic reproduction number, and lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines. The genome of the virus responsible for COVID-19 has been sequenced. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the main protease has been determined experimentally. Objective: To identify potential drugs that can be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19 by using molecular docking based virtual screening of all approved drugs. Methods: A list of drugs approved for clinical use was obtained from the SuperDRUG2 database. The structure of the target in the apo form, as well as structures of several target-ligand complexes, were obtained from RCSB PDB. The structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro determined from X-ray diffraction data was used as the target. Data regarding drugs in clinical trials for COVID-19 was obtained from Input for molecular docking based virtual screening was prepared by using Obabel and customized python, bash, and awk scripts. Molecular docking calculations were carried out with Vina and SMINA, and the docked conformations were analyzed and visualized with PLIP, Pymol, and Rasmol. Results: Among the drugs that are being tested in clinical trials for COVID-19, Danoprevir and Darunavir were predicted to have the highest binding affinity for the Main protease (Mpro) target of SARS-CoV-2. Saquinavir and Beclabuvir were identified as the best novel candidates for COVID-19 therapy by using Virtual Screening of drugs approved for other clinical indications. Conclusion: Protease inhibitors approved for treatment of other viral diseases have the potential to be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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