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Daclatasvir for COVID-19

Daclatasvir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Sokhela et al., Randomized clinical trial of nitazoxanide or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkac266
Abstract Background The COVER trial evaluated whether nitazoxanide or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir could lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nitazoxanide was selected given its favourable pharmacokinetics and in vitro antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir had shown favourable results in early clinical trials. Methods In this clinical trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, healthcare workers and others at high risk of infection were randomized to 24 weeks of either nitazoxanide or sofosbuvir/daclatasvir as prevention, or standard prevention advice only. Participants were evaluated every 4 weeks for COVID-19 symptoms and had antibody and PCR testing. The primary endpoint was positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR and/or serology ≥7 days after randomization, regardless of symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate the incidence rate ratios of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 between each experimental arm and control. Results Between December 2020 and January 2022, 828 participants were enrolled. COVID-19 infections were confirmed in 100 participants on nitazoxanide (2234 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1837–2718), 87 on sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (2125 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1722–2622) and 111 in the control arm (1849 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI 1535–2227). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the treatment arms, and the results met the criteria for futility. In the safety analysis, the frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was low and similar across arms. Conclusions In this randomized trial, nitazoxanide and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir had no significant preventative effect on infection with SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers and others at high risk of infection.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Ceja-Gálvez et al., Severe COVID-19: Drugs and Clinical Trials, Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12082893
By January of 2023, the COVID-19 pandemic had led to a reported total of 6,700,883 deaths and 662,631,114 cases worldwide. To date, there have been no effective therapies or standardized treatment schemes for this disease; therefore, the search for effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategies is a primary goal that must be addressed. This review aims to provide an analysis of the most efficient and promising therapies and drugs for the prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19, comparing their degree of success, scope, and limitations, with the aim of providing support to health professionals in choosing the best pharmacological approach. An investigation of the most promising and effective treatments against COVID-19 that are currently available was carried out by employing search terms including “Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19” or “Viral polymerase inhibitors” and “COVID-19” in the and PubMed databases. From the current perspective and with the information available from the various clinical trials assessing the efficacy of different therapeutic options, we conclude that it is necessary to standardize certain variables—such as the viral clearance time, biomarkers associated with severity, hospital stay, requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate—in order to facilitate verification of the efficacy of such treatments and to better assess the repeatability of the most effective and promising results.
Yakoot et al., Clinical utility of repurposing a short course of hepatitis C drugs for COVID19. A randomized controlled study, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.07.18.22277477
ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDPreliminary data suggests a potential therapeutic benefit for the hepatitis C drugs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV) for the treatment of COVID-19. We aim to evaluate efficacy of a short course of dual sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in patients with COVID-19.METHODSEighty-nine consecutive eligible patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The experimental group was treated with the standard of care (SOC) therapy in addition to one 400 mg tablet sofosbuvir and one 60 mg daclatasvir daily for 10 days; while the control group was treated with the SOC therapy alone. Baseline clinical data was measured and followed up for 21 days. Data was compared between the two treatment groups.RESULTSThe proportion of cumulative clinical recovery in the experimental group at day 21 was numerically greater than the control group (40/44 (91%; 95%CI: 78.8-96.4%) versus 35/45 (77.8%; CI 63.7-87.5%)). The Hazard Ratio (HR) for time to clinical recovery adjusted for baseline severity, using a Cox-regression model was statistically significant: HR: 1.59 (95%CI: 1.001-2.5). Concordantly, the experimental group also showed trends for greater improvement in the mean 8-points ordinal scale score, the severity of lung lesions score and the case fatality rate (4.5% versus 11.1%). No serious or severe adverse events were reported in both groups.CONCLUSIONThis study supports potential benefit and safety of sofosbuvir combined with daclatasvir when given early in the treatment of COVID-19. We hope to encourage further large sized, multinational studies to confirm the results.HIGHLIGHTSPreliminary data suggests a potential therapeutic benefit for the hepatitis C drugs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV) for the treatment of COVID-19.Eighty-nine COVID-19 patients were randomly assigned to either treatment with SOC plus a short course of combined SOF/DCV therapy or SOC therapy alone.The Hazard Ratio (HR) for time to clinical recovery adjusted for baseline severity showed statistical significance: HR: 1.59 (95%CI: 1.001-2.5). Concordantly, all other efficacy endpoints showed numerical trends for greater improvement in the experimental group including the case fatality rate (4.5% versus 11.1%). No serious or severe adverse events were reported in both groups.SOF/DCV therapy might be beneficial when given early in the treatment of COVID-19.
Mosharaf et al., Computational identification of host genomic biomarkers highlighting their functions, pathways and regulators that influence SARS-CoV-2 infections and drug repurposing, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-08073-8
AbstractThe pandemic threat of COVID-19 has severely destroyed human life as well as the economy around the world. Although, the vaccination has reduced the outspread, but people are still suffering due to the unstable RNA sequence patterns of SARS-CoV-2 which demands supplementary drugs. To explore novel drug target proteins, in this study, a transcriptomics RNA-Seq data generated from SARS-CoV-2 infection and control samples were analyzed. We identified 109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were utilized to identify 10 hub-genes/proteins (TLR2, USP53, GUCY1A2, SNRPD2, NEDD9, IGF2, CXCL2, KLF6, PAG1 and ZFP36) by the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The GO functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of hub-DEGs revealed some important functions and signaling pathways that are significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. The interaction network analysis identified 5 TFs proteins and 6 miRNAs as the key regulators of hub-DEGs. Considering 10 hub-proteins and 5 key TFs-proteins as drug target receptors, we performed their docking analysis with the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease-guided top listed 90 FDA approved drugs. We found Torin-2, Rapamycin, Radotinib, Ivermectin, Thiostrepton, Tacrolimus and Daclatasvir as the top ranked seven candidate drugs. We investigated their resistance performance against the already published COVID-19 causing top-ranked 11 independent and 8 protonated receptor proteins by molecular docking analysis and found their strong binding affinities, which indicates that the proposed drugs are effective against the state-of-the-arts alternatives independent receptor proteins also. Finally, we investigated the stability of top three drugs (Torin-2, Rapamycin and Radotinib) by using 100 ns MD-based MM-PBSA simulations with the two top-ranked proposed receptors (TLR2, USP53) and independent receptors (IRF7, STAT1), and observed their stable performance. Therefore, the proposed drugs might play a vital role for the treatment against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Wang et al., Combination of antiviral drugs inhibits SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease and demonstrates COVID-19 therapeutic potential in viral cell culture, Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-022-03101-9
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 has an exonuclease-based proofreader, which removes nucleotide inhibitors such as Remdesivir that are incorporated into the viral RNA during replication, reducing the efficacy of these drugs for treating COVID-19. Combinations of inhibitors of both the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the exonuclease could overcome this deficiency. Here we report the identification of hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitors Pibrentasvir and Ombitasvir as SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease inhibitors. In the presence of Pibrentasvir, RNAs terminated with the active forms of the prodrugs Sofosbuvir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Molnupiravir and AT-527 were largely protected from excision by the exonuclease, while in the absence of Pibrentasvir, there was rapid excision. Due to its unique structure, Tenofovir-terminated RNA was highly resistant to exonuclease excision even in the absence of Pibrentasvir. Viral cell culture studies also demonstrate significant synergy using this combination strategy. This study supports the use of combination drugs that inhibit both the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease for effective COVID-19 treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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