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Cloperastine for COVID-19

Cloperastine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Cesar-Silva et al., The Endolysosomal System: The Acid Test for SARS-CoV-2, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23094576
This review aims to describe and discuss the different functions of the endolysosomal system, from homeostasis to its vital role during viral infections. We will initially describe endolysosomal system’s main functions, presenting recent data on how its compartments are essential for host defense to explore later how SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) and other coronaviruses subvert these organelles for their benefit. It is clear that to succeed, pathogens’ evolution favored the establishment of ways to avoid, escape, or manipulate lysosomal function. The unavoidable coexistence with such an unfriendly milieu imposed on viruses the establishment of a vast array of strategies to make the most out of the invaded cell’s machinery to produce new viruses and maneuvers to escape the host’s defense system.
Alkafaas et al., Molecular docking as a tool for the discovery of novel insight about the role of acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors in SARS- CoV-2 infectivity, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/s12889-024-17747-z
AbstractRecently, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, caused > 6 million deaths. Symptoms included respiratory strain and complications, leading to severe pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the ACE-2 receptor of the host cell membrane to enter. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 entry may effectively inhibit infection. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is a lysosomal protein that catalyzes the conversion of sphingolipid (sphingomyelin) to ceramide. Ceramide molecules aggregate/assemble on the plasma membrane to form “platforms” that facilitate the viral intake into the cell. Impairing the ASMase activity will eventually disrupt viral entry into the cell. In this review, we identified the metabolism of sphingolipids, sphingolipids' role in cell signal transduction cascades, and viral infection mechanisms. Also, we outlined ASMase structure and underlying mechanisms inhibiting viral entry 40 with the aid of inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs). In silico molecular docking analyses of FIASMAs with inhibitors revealed that dilazep (S = − 12.58 kcal/mol), emetine (S = − 11.65 kcal/mol), pimozide (S = − 11.29 kcal/mol), carvedilol (S = − 11.28 kcal/mol), mebeverine (S = − 11.14 kcal/mol), cepharanthine (S = − 11.06 kcal/mol), hydroxyzin (S = − 10.96 kcal/mol), astemizole (S = − 10.81 kcal/mol), sertindole (S = − 10.55 kcal/mol), and bepridil (S = − 10.47 kcal/mol) have higher inhibition activity than the candidate drug amiodarone (S = − 10.43 kcal/mol), making them better options for inhibition.
Heiser et al., Identification of potential treatments for COVID-19 through artificial intelligence-enabled phenomic analysis of human cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.21.054387
AbstractTo identify potential therapeutic stop-gaps for SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated a library of 1,670 approved and reference compounds in an unbiased, cellular image-based screen for their ability to suppress the broad impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on phenomic profiles of human renal cortical epithelial cells using deep learning. In our assay, remdesivir is the only antiviral tested with strong efficacy, neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine have any beneficial effect in this human cell model, and a small number of compounds not currently being pursued clinically for SARS-CoV-2 have efficacy. We observed weak but beneficial class effects of β-blockers, mTOR/PI3K inhibitors and Vitamin D analogues and a mild amplification of the viral phenotype with β-agonists.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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