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Cinnamaldehyde for COVID-19

Cinnamaldehyde has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Alkafaas et al., A study on the effect of natural products against the transmission of B.1.1.529 Omicron, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02160-6
Abstract Background The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic resulted in a successful vaccination program launched by the World Health Organization. However, a large population is still unvaccinated, leading to the emergence of mutated strains like alpha, beta, delta, and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Recent reports from the World Health Organization raised concerns about the Omicron variant, which emerged in South Africa during a surge in COVID-19 cases in November 2021. Vaccines are not proven completely effective or safe against Omicron, leading to clinical trials for combating infection by the mutated virus. The absence of suitable pharmaceuticals has led scientists and clinicians to search for alternative and supplementary therapies, including dietary patterns, to reduce the effect of mutated strains. Main body This review analyzed Coronavirus aetiology, epidemiology, and natural products for combating Omicron. Although the literature search did not include keywords related to in silico or computational research, in silico investigations were emphasized in this study. Molecular docking was implemented to compare the interaction between natural products and Chloroquine with the ACE2 receptor protein amino acid residues of Omicron. The global Omicron infection proceeding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was also elucidated. The docking results suggest that DGCG may bind to the ACE2 receptor three times more effectively than standard chloroquine. Conclusion The emergence of the Omicron variant has highlighted the need for alternative therapies to reduce the impact of mutated strains. The current review suggests that natural products such as DGCG may be effective in binding to the ACE2 receptor and combating the Omicron variant, however, further research is required to validate the results of this study and explore the potential of natural products to mitigate COVID-19. Graphical abstract
Zhang et al., SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a Protein as a Therapeutic Target against COVID-19 and Long-Term Post-Infection Effects, Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens13010075
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed unparalleled challenges due to its rapid transmission, ability to mutate, high mortality and morbidity, and enduring health complications. Vaccines have exhibited effectiveness, but their efficacy diminishes over time while new variants continue to emerge. Antiviral medications offer a viable alternative, but their success has been inconsistent. Therefore, there remains an ongoing need to identify innovative antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 and its post-infection complications. The ORF3a (open reading frame 3a) protein found in SARS-CoV-2, represents a promising target for antiviral treatment due to its multifaceted role in viral pathogenesis, cytokine storms, disease severity, and mortality. ORF3a contributes significantly to viral pathogenesis by facilitating viral assembly and release, essential processes in the viral life cycle, while also suppressing the body’s antiviral responses, thus aiding viral replication. ORF3a also has been implicated in triggering excessive inflammation, characterized by NF-κB-mediated cytokine production, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death and tissue damage in the lungs, kidneys, and the central nervous system. Additionally, ORF3a triggers the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, inciting a cytokine storm, which is a major contributor to the severity of the disease and subsequent mortality. As with the spike protein, ORF3a also undergoes mutations, and certain mutant variants correlate with heightened disease severity in COVID-19. These mutations may influence viral replication and host cellular inflammatory responses. While establishing a direct link between ORF3a and mortality is difficult, its involvement in promoting inflammation and exacerbating disease severity likely contributes to higher mortality rates in severe COVID-19 cases. This review offers a comprehensive and detailed exploration of ORF3a’s potential as an innovative antiviral drug target. Additionally, we outline potential strategies for discovering and developing ORF3a inhibitor drugs to counteract its harmful effects, alleviate tissue damage, and reduce the severity of COVID-19 and its lingering complications.
Tiwari et al., Virtual Screening of Phytochemicals in Search of a Potential Drug Candidate for COVID-19: DFT Study and Molecular Docking, COVID-19: Origin, Impact and Management (Part 2), doi:10.2174/9789815165944123010012
The global health pandemic due to COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, affected and changed the world’s condition drastically. Herein, we evaluated the bioactivity of some phytochemicals as inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 M provirus (6LU7) using computational models. We reported the optimization of phytochemicals employing density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level theory. DFT calculations were employed to determine the free energy, dipole moment as well as chemical reactivity descriptors. Molecular docking has been performed against the SARS-CoV-2 M provirus to search the binding affinity and interactions of all compounds with the respective protein. The known drug, Chloroquine of SARS-CoV-2 main protease, was also docked to evaluate its binding affinity. Besides, the data from DFT, the docking studies predicted that flavonoids (Quercetin, Myricetin, Apigenin and Daidzein) have the least binding affinity and might serve as a potent inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 comparable with the approved medicine, Chloroquine. The high binding affinity of flavonoids was attributed to the presence of hydrogen bonds along with different hydrophobic interactions between the flavonoid and the critical amino acid residues of the receptor. The DFT calculations showed that flavonoids have high.lying HOMO, electrophilicity index and dipole moment. All these parameters could share a different extent to significantly affect the binding affinity of these phytochemicals with active protein sites.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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