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Chrysoeriol for COVID-19

Chrysoeriol has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Rafiq et al., A Comprehensive Update of Various Attempts by Medicinal Chemists to Combat COVID-19 through Natural Products, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28124860
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global panic because of its continual evolution and recurring spikes. This serious malignancy is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the outbreak, millions of people have been affected from December 2019 till now, which has led to a great surge in finding treatments. Despite trying to handle the pandemic with the repurposing of some drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ivermectin, etc., against COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues its out-of-control spread. There is a dire need to identify a new regimen of natural products to combat the deadly viral disease. This article deals with the literature reports to date of natural products showing inhibitory activity towards SARS-CoV-2 through different approaches, such as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. Natural compounds targeting the proteins of SARS-CoV-2—the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), spike proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), endoribonuclease, exoribonuclease, helicase, nucleocapsid, methyltransferase, adeno diphosphate (ADP) phosphatase, other nonstructural proteins, and envelope proteins—were extracted mainly from plants, and some were isolated from bacteria, algae, fungi, and a few marine organisms.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Youn et al., Robust therapeutic effects on COVID-19 of novel small molecules: Alleviation of SARS-CoV-2 S protein induction of ACE2/TMPRSS2, NOX2/ROS, and MCP-1, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.3389/fcvm.2022.957340
While new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) constantly emerge to prolong the pandemic of COVID-19, robust and safe therapeutics are in urgent need. During the previous and ongoing fight against the pandemic in China, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has proven to be markedly effective in treating COVID-19. Among active ingredients of TCM recipes, small molecules such as quercetin, glabridin, gallic acid, and chrysoeriol have been predicted to target viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via system pharmacology/molecular docking/visualization analyses. Of note, endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress and inflammation represents a critical mediator of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ injuries in patients with COVID-19. Hence, in the present study, we examined whether quercetin, glabridin, gallic acide and chrysoeriol regulate viral receptors of ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), redox modulator NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2), and inflammatory protein of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in endothelial cells to mediate therapeutic protection against COVID-19. Indeed, quercetin, glabridin, gallic acide and chrysoeriol completely attenuated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein)-induced upregulation in ACE2 protein expression in endothelial cells. In addition, these small molecules abolished S protein upregulation of cleaved/active form of TMPRSS2, while native TMPRSS2 was not significantly regulated. Moreover, these small molecules completely abrogated S protein-induced upregulation in NOX2 protein expression, which resulted in alleviated superoxide production, confirming their preventive efficacies against S protein-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. In addition, treatment with these small molecules abolished S protein induction of MCP-1 expression. Collectively, our findings for the first time demonstrate that these novel small molecules may be used as novel and robust therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with COVID-19, via effective attenuation of S protein induction of endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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