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CgRd for COVID-19

CgRd has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Chuang et al., Broad-Spectrum Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike—ACE2 Protein–Protein Interaction from a Chemical Space of Privileged Protein Binders, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15091084
Therapeutically useful small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) initiating the cell attachment and entry of viruses could provide novel alternative antivirals that act via mechanisms similar to that of neutralizing antibodies but retain the advantages of small-molecule drugs such as oral bioavailability and low likelihood of immunogenicity. From screening our library, which is focused around the chemical space of organic dyes to provide good protein binders, we have identified several promising SMIs of the SARS-CoV-2 spike—ACE2 interaction, which is needed for the attachment and cell entry of this coronavirus behind the COVID-19 pandemic. They included organic dyes, such as Congo red, direct violet 1, and Evans blue, which seem to be promiscuous PPI inhibitors, as well as novel drug-like compounds (e.g., DRI-C23041). Here, we show that in addition to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, these SMIs also inhibit this PPI for variants of concern including delta (B.1.617.2) and omicron (B.1.1.529) as well as HCoV-NL63 with low- or even sub-micromolar activity. They also concentration-dependently inhibited SARS-CoV-2-S expressing pseudovirus entry into hACE2-expressing cells with low micromolar activity (IC50 < 10 μM) both for the original strain and the delta variant. DRI-C23041 showed good therapeutic (selectivity) index, i.e., separation between activity and cytotoxicity (TI > 100). Specificities and activities require further optimization; nevertheless, these results provide a promising starting point toward novel broad-spectrum small-molecule antivirals that act via blocking the interaction between the spike proteins of coronaviruses and their ACE2 receptor initiating cellular entry.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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