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Caffeic acid for COVID-19

Caffeic acid has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Zeng et al., Calpain-2 mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry via regulating ACE2 levels, mBio, doi:10.1128/mbio.02287-23
ABSTRACT Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, much effort has been dedicated to identifying effective antivirals against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A number of calpain inhibitors show excellent antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 by targeting the viral main protease (M pro ), which plays an essential role in processing viral polyproteins. In this study, we found that calpain inhibitors potently inhibited the infection of a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but not M pro . In contrast, calpain inhibitors did not exhibit antiviral activities toward the wild-type VSV with its native glycoprotein. Genetic knockout of calpain-2 by CRISPR/Cas9 conferred resistance of the host cells to the chimeric VSV-SARS-CoV-2 virus and a clinical isolate of wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Mechanistically, calpain-2 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell attachment by positively regulating the cell surface levels of ACE2. These results highlight an M pro -independent pathway targeted by calpain inhibitors for efficient viral inhibition. We also identify calpain-2 as a novel host factor and a potential therapeutic target responsible for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the entry step. IMPORTANCE Many efforts in small-molecule screens have been made to counter SARS-CoV-2 infection by targeting the viral main protease, the major element that processes viral proteins after translation. Here, we discovered that calpain inhibitors further block SARS-CoV-2 infection in a main protease-independent manner. We identified the host cysteine protease calpain-2 as an important positive regulator of the cell surface levels of SARS-CoV-2 cellular receptor ACE2 and, thus, a facilitator of viral infection. By either pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of calpain-2, the SARS-CoV-2 binding to host cells is blocked and viral infection is decreased. Our findings highlight a novel mechanism of ACE2 regulation, which presents a potential new therapeutic target. Since calpain inhibitors also potently interfere with the viral main protease, our data also provide a mechanistic understanding of the potential use of calpain inhibitors as dual inhibitors (entry and replication) in the clinical setting of COVID-19 diseases. Our findings bring mechanistic insights into the cellular process of SARS-CoV-2 entry and offer a novel explanation to the mechanism of activities of calpain inhibitors.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Ramezani et al., Effect of herbal compounds on inhibition of coronavirus; A systematic review and meta-analysis, Authorea, Inc., doi:10.22541/au.170668000.04030360/v1
The outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transferred exponentially. There are many articles that have found the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant compounds on the coronavirus family. In this study, we want to use systematic review and meta-analysis to answer the question of which herbal compound can be more effective against the coronavirus. The present study is based on the guidelines for conducting meta-analyzes. An extensive search was conducted in the electronic database, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected and data screening was performed. Quality control of articles was performed. Data analysis was carried out in STATA software. The results showed that alkaloid compounds had a good effect in controlling the coronavirus and reducing viral titer. Trypthantrin, Sambucus extract, S. cusia extract, Boceprevir and Indigole B, dioica agglutinin urtica had a good effect on reducing the virus titer but their selectivity index has not been reported and it is recommended to determine for these compounds. Also among the compounds that had the greatest effect on virus inhibition, including Saikosaponins B2, SaikosaponinsD, SaikosaponinsA and Phillyrin, had an acceptable selectivity index greater than 10. Andrographolide showed the highest selectivity index on SARS-COV2, while virus titration and virus inhibition were not reported. The small number of studies that used alkaloid compounds was one of the limitations and it is suggested to investigate the effect of more alkaloid compounds against the coronavirus for verifying its effect.
Abarova et al., Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Polyphenols from Geranium sanguineum L. in Viral Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom14010130
The existing literature supports the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral capacities of the polyphenol extracts derived from Geranium sanguineum L. These extracts exhibit potential in hindering viral replication by inhibiting enzymes like DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. The antiviral properties of G. sanguineum L. seem to complement its immunomodulatory effects, contributing to infection resolution. While preclinical studies on G. sanguineum L. suggest its potential effectiveness against COVID-19, there is still a lack of clinical evidence. Therefore, the polyphenols extracted from this herb warrant further investigation as a potential alternative for preventing and treating COVID-19 infections.
Beg et al., Are herbal drugs effective in COVID management? A review to demystify the current facts and claims, ScienceOpen, doi:10.14293/s2199-1006.1.sor-.ppxfif7.v2
Amid the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic, herbal medicines have received much attention in its evidence-based therapeutics. Scientists across the globe are integrating new research at an unprecedented fast pace for the discovery of novel molecules against this deadly viral disease. Ever since ancient times, phytochemicals have long been used traditionally for the cure of many viral diseases and lately many are being tested for their potential against the viral replications/transcriptions. The unmatched structural diversity of phytoconstituents may prove to be a gold mine for antiviral drug discovery. Many plants like Heteromorpha spp., Bupleurum spp, Scrophularia scorodonia, Artemisia annua, Pyrrosia lingua, Lycoris radiate, and Lindera agregata have also been reported to have antiviral potential against SARS-CoV. Recently many synthetic molecules like remdesivir, tocilizumab, favipirapir, dexamethasone, glucocorticoid, and hydroxychloroquine etc. have been extensively investigated for their potential against the SARS‐CoV‐2, likewise, various plant-based molecules such as scutellarein, silvestrol, tryptanthrin, saikosaponin B2, quercetin, myricetin, caffeic acid, psoralidin, isobavachalcone, and lectins-griffiths in were also found to be equally effective. Needless to mention that, the herbal medicines are a valuable and powerful source of chemical compounds which need further chemical modifications and appropriate in-vitro and in-vivo testings for establishing their safety and efficacy as potential drugs against the battle with coronavirus pandemic. In this review, we will try to highlight the potential phytochemicals candidates with their possible molecular targets against the SARS‐CoV‐2and demystify the myths behind the purported remedies such as herbal therapies, teas, essential oils, tinctures, and silver products such as colloidal silver that have no scientific evidence to prevent or cure COVID-19. Apart from that, this review will also de-fabricate the surgency of objectionable claims that are continuously reckoning towards the treatment of COVID-19 with hundred per cent surety and are propagated by several herbal firms.
Jaber, S., The effect of a small polyphenolic and terpenoids phytochemical constituent on curing and preventing of Covid-19 infections, Pharmacia, doi:10.3897/pharmacia.70.e106534
Covid-19 spreading have caused millions of deaths worldwide and caused sever economic shrinking resulted in high levels of inflations. The on going pandemic has pushed the pharmaceutical companies to invent different vaccines to overcome the spreading of the virus and to reduce its effect on health and economy. Unfortunately, the middle and low income countries have been struggling in providing vaccines to their people due to the high expenses associated with vaccines ordering. Thus, the interest in finding a treatment and a prevention of Covid-19 from natural products has increased not in those countries only, even in high income countries. In this review we investigated the promising natural phytochemical compounds and their published mechanism of action in a prestigious peer-reviewed research journal throw different molecular docking and in vivo and vitro techniques. Its was found that the consumption of the medicinal plants containing small phenolic and terpenoids phytoconstituent like as thymoquinone, quercetin, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, ellagic acid, vanillin, and thymol have a great therapeutic effect for curing and preventing viral infections. This review has focused on the small polyphenolic and terpenoids compounds and their potential and mechanism activity against SARS-CoV-2. Our comprehensive analysis provides mechanistic insight into plant components for virus containment prevent infections and provide better solutions through natural therapeutically active ingredients.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Rahman et al., In silico investigation and potential therapeutic approaches of natural products for COVID-19: Computer-aided drug design perspective, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.929430
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a substantial number of deaths around the world, making it a serious and pressing public health hazard. Phytochemicals could thus provide a rich source of potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. The absence of approved treatments or vaccinations continues to be an issue, forcing the creation of new medicines. Computer-aided drug design has helped to speed up the drug research and development process by decreasing costs and time. Natural compounds like terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoid derivatives have a perfect impact against viral replication and facilitate future studies in novel drug discovery. This would be more effective if collaboration took place between governments, researchers, clinicians, and traditional medicine practitioners’ safe and effective therapeutic research. Through a computational approach, this study aims to contribute to the development of effective treatment methods by examining the mechanisms relating to the binding and subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The in silico method has also been employed to determine the most effective drug among the mentioned compound and their aquatic, nonaquatic, and pharmacokinetics’ data have been analyzed. The highest binding energy has been reported -11.4 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (7MBG) in L05. Besides, all the ligands are non-carcinogenic, excluding L04, and have good water solubility and no AMES toxicity. The discovery of preclinical drug candidate molecules and the structural elucidation of pharmacological therapeutic targets have expedited both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. This review article will assist physicians and researchers in realizing the enormous potential of computer-aided drug design in the design and discovery of therapeutic molecules, and hence in the treatment of deadly diseases.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Le-Trilling et al., Universally available herbal teas based on sage and perilla elicit potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern by HMOX-1 upregulation in human cells, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.388710
The current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic wreaks medical and socioeconomic havoc. Despite the availability of vaccines, cost-effective acute treatment options preventing morbidity and mortality are urgently needed. To identify affordable, ubiquitously available, and effective treatments, we tested herbs consumed worldwide as herbal teas regarding their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Aqueous infusions prepared by boiling leaves of the Lamiaceae perilla and sage elicit potent and sustained antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in therapeutic as well as prophylactic regimens. The herbal infusions exerted antiviral effects comparable to interferon-β and remdesivir but outperformed convalescent sera and interferon-α2 upon short-term treatment early after infection. Based on protein fractionation analyses, we identified caffeic acid, perilla aldehyde, and perillyl alcohol as antiviral compounds. Global mass spectrometry (MS) analyses performed comparatively in two different cell culture infection models revealed changes of the proteome upon treatment with herbal infusions and provided insights into the mode of action. As inferred by the MS data, induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1) was confirmed as effector mechanism by the antiviral activity of the HMOX-1-inducing compounds sulforaphane and fraxetin. In conclusion, herbal teas based on perilla and sage exhibit antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 including variants of concern such as Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron.
Flores-Félix et al., Consumption of Phenolic-Rich Food and Dietary Supplements as a Key Tool in SARS-CoV-19 Infection, Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10092084
The first cases of COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, were reported in December 2019. The vertiginous worldwide expansion of SARS-CoV-2 caused the collapse of health systems in several countries due to the high severity of the COVID-19. In addition to the vaccines, the search for active compounds capable of preventing and/or fighting the infection has been the main direction of research. Since the beginning of this pandemic, some evidence has highlighted the importance of a phenolic-rich diet as a strategy to reduce the progression of this disease, including the severity of the symptoms. Some of these compounds (e.g., curcumin, gallic acid or quercetin) already showed capacity to limit the infection of viruses by inhibiting entry into the cell through its binding to protein Spike, regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, disrupting the replication in cells by inhibition of viral proteases, and/or suppressing and modulating the host’s immune response. Therefore, this review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential of phenolics to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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