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Boceprevir for COVID-19

Boceprevir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Kouznetsova et al., Potential SARS-CoV-2 protease Mpro inhibitors: repurposing FDA-approved drugs, Physical Biology, doi:10.1088/1478-3975/abcb66
Abstract Using as a template the crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, we developed a pharmacophore model of functional centers of the protease inhibitor-binding pocket. With this model, we conducted data mining of the conformational database of FDA-approved drugs. This search brought 64 compounds that can be potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 protease. The conformations of these compounds undergone 3D fingerprint similarity clusterization. Then we conducted docking of possible conformers of these drugs to the binding pocket of the protease. We also conducted the same docking of random compounds. Free energies of the docking interaction for the selected compounds were clearly lower than random compounds. Three of the selected compounds were carfilzomib, cyclosporine A, and azithromycin—the drugs that already are tested for COVID-19 treatment. Among the selected compounds are two HIV protease inhibitors and two hepatitis C protease inhibitors. We recommend testing of the selected compounds for treatment of COVID-19.
Ma et al., Boceprevir, GC-376, and calpain inhibitors II, XII inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by targeting the viral main protease, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.051581
A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, also called novel coronavirus 2019 (nCoV-19), started to circulate among humans around December 2019, and it is now widespread as a global pandemic. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus is called COVID-19, which is highly contagious and has an overall mortality rate of 6.96% as of May 4, 2020. There is no vaccine or antiviral available for SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we report our discovery of inhibitors targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Using the FRET-based enzymatic assay, several inhibitors including boceprevir, GC-376, and calpain inhibitors II, and XII were identified to have potent activity with single-digit to submicromolar IC50 values in the enzymatic assay. The mechanism of action of the hits was further characterized using enzyme kinetic studies, thermal shift binding assays, and native mass spectrometry. Significantly, four compounds (boceprevir, GC-376, calpain inhibitors II and XII) inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in cell culture with EC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 3.37 μM. Notably, boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII represent novel chemotypes that are distinct from known Mpro inhibitors. A complex crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with GC-376, determined at 2.15 Å resolution with three monomers per asymmetric unit, revealed two unique binding configurations, shedding light on the molecular interactions and protein conformational flexibility underlying substrate and inhibitor binding by Mpro. Overall, the compounds identified herein provide promising starting points for the further development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.
Ghahremanpour et al., Identification of 14 Known Drugs as Inhibitors of the Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.271957
AbstractA consensus virtual screening protocol has been applied to ca. 2000 approved drugs to seek inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. 42 drugs emerged as top candidates, and after visual analyses of the predicted structures of their complexes with Mpro, 17 were chosen for evaluation in a kinetic assay for Mpro inhibition. Remarkably 14 of the compounds at 100-μM concentration were found to reduce the enzymatic activity and 5 provided IC50 values below 40 μM: manidipine (4.8 μM), boceprevir (5.4 μM), lercanidipine (16.2 μM), bedaquiline (18.7 μM), and efonidipine (38.5 μM). Structural analyses reveal a common cloverleaf pattern for the binding of the active compounds to the P1, P1’, and P2 pockets of Mpro. Further study of the most active compounds in the context of COVID-19 therapy is warranted, while all of the active compounds may provide a foundation for lead optimization to deliver valuable chemotherapeutics to combat the pandemic.
Jan et al., Identification of existing pharmaceuticals and herbal medicines as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2021579118
Significance COVID-19 is a global pandemic currently lacking an effective cure. We used a cell-based infection assay to screen more than 3,000 agents used in humans and animals and identified 15 with antiinfective activity, ranging from 0.1 nM to 50 μM. We then used in vitro enzymatic assays combined with computer modeling to confirm the activity of those against the viral protease and RNA polymerase. In addition, several herbal medicines were found active in the cell-based infection assay. To further evaluate the efficacy of these promising compounds in animal models, we developed a challenge assay with hamsters and found that mefloquine, nelfinavir, and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (RF3), Perilla frutescens , and Mentha haplocalyx were effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Baker et al., A drug repurposing screen identifies hepatitis C antivirals as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV2 main protease, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0245962
Effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs are desperately needed. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) appears as an attractive target for drug development. We show that the existing pharmacopeia contains many drugs with potential for therapeutic repurposing as selective and potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We screened a collection of ~6,070 drugs with a previous history of use in humans for compounds that inhibit the activity of Mpro in vitro and found ~50 compounds with activity against Mpro. Subsequent dose validation studies demonstrated 8 dose responsive hits with an IC50 ≤ 50 μM. Hits from our screen are enriched with hepatitis C NS3/4A protease targeting drugs including boceprevir, ciluprevir. narlaprevir, and telaprevir. This work suggests previous large-scale commercial drug development initiatives targeting hepatitis C NS3/4A viral protease should be revisited because some previous lead compounds may be more potent against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro than boceprevir and suitable for rapid repurposing.
Kuo et al., Kinetic Characterization and Inhibitor Screening for the Proteases Leading to Identification of Drugs against SARS-CoV-2, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1128/AAC.02577-20
Coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed many lives worldwide and is still spreading since December 2019. The 3C-like protease (3CL pro ) and papain-like protease (PL pro ) are essential for maturation of viral polyproteins in SARS-CoV-2 life cycle and thus regarded as key drug targets for the disease.
Yevsieieva et al., Main and papain-like proteases as prospective targets for pharmacological treatment of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, RSC Advances, doi:10.1039/d3ra06479d
The review outlines coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 morphology, life cycle, and essential proteins, focusing on a design strategy for dual-acting inhibitors for PLpro and Mpro proteases.
Sokouti, B., A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
Farkaš et al., A Tale of Two Proteases: MPro and TMPRSS2 as Targets for COVID-19 Therapies, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16060834
Considering the importance of the 2019 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an overview of two proteases that play an important role in the infection by SARS-CoV-2, the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (MPro) and the host transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), is presented in this review. After summarising the viral replication cycle to identify the relevance of these proteases, the therapeutic agents already approved are presented. Then, this review discusses some of the most recently reported inhibitors first for the viral MPro and next for the host TMPRSS2 explaining the mechanism of action of each protease. Afterward, some computational approaches to design novel MPro and TMPRSS2 inhibitors are presented, also describing the corresponding crystallographic structures reported so far. Finally, a brief discussion on a few reports found some dual-action inhibitors for both proteases is given. This review provides an overview of two proteases of different origins (viral and human host) that have become important targets for the development of antiviral agents to treat COVID-19.
Wang et al., Repurposing Drugs for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Its Cardiovascular Manifestations, Circulation Research, doi:10.1161/circresaha.122.321879
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 leading to the ongoing global pandemic. Infected patients developed a range of respiratory symptoms, including respiratory failure, as well as other extrapulmonary complications. Multiple comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney diseases, are associated with the severity and increased mortality of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection also causes a range of cardiovascular complications, including myocarditis, myocardial injury, heart failure, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism. Although a variety of methods have been developed and many clinical trials have been launched for drug repositioning for COVID-19, treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular disease comorbidities specifically are limited. In this review, we summarize recent advances in drug repositioning for COVID-19, including experimental drug repositioning, high-throughput drug screening, omics data-based, and network medicine-based computational drug repositioning, with particular attention on those drug treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19. We discuss prospective opportunities and potential methods for repurposing drugs to treat cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.
Guo et al., Enhanced compound-protein binding affinity prediction by representing protein multimodal information via a coevolutionary strategy, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac628
Abstract Due to the lack of a method to efficiently represent the multimodal information of a protein, including its structure and sequence information, predicting compound-protein binding affinity (CPA) still suffers from low accuracy when applying machine-learning methods. To overcome this limitation, in a novel end-to-end architecture (named FeatNN), we develop a coevolutionary strategy to jointly represent the structure and sequence features of proteins and ultimately optimize the mathematical models for predicting CPA. Furthermore, from the perspective of data-driven approach, we proposed a rational method that can utilize both high- and low-quality databases to optimize the accuracy and generalization ability of FeatNN in CPA prediction tasks. Notably, we visually interpret the feature interaction process between sequence and structure in the rationally designed architecture. As a result, FeatNN considerably outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) baseline in virtual drug evaluation tasks, indicating the feasibility of this approach for practical use. FeatNN provides an outstanding method for higher CPA prediction accuracy and better generalization ability by efficiently representing multimodal information of proteins via a coevolutionary strategy.
Mody et al., Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x
AbstractEmerging outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major threat to public health. The morbidity is increasing due to lack of SARS-CoV-2 specific drugs. Herein, we have identified potential drugs that target the 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLpro), the main protease that is pivotal for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Computational molecular modeling was used to screen 3987 FDA approved drugs, and 47 drugs were selected to study their inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme in vitro. Our results indicate that boceprevir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir, tipranavir, ivermectin, and micafungin exhibited inhibitory effect towards 3CLpro enzymatic activity. The 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies showed that ivermectin may require homodimeric form of 3CLpro enzyme for its inhibitory activity. In summary, these molecules could be useful to develop highly specific therapeutically viable drugs to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 replication either alone or in combination with drugs specific for other SARS-CoV-2 viral targets.
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