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Baicalin for COVID-19

Baicalin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Lin et al., Study of Baicalin toward COVID-19 Treatment: In silico Target Analysis and in vitro Inhibitory Effects on SARS-CoV-2 Proteases, Biomedicine Hub, doi:10.1159/000519564
Negative impacts of COVID-19 on human health and economic and social activities urge scientists to develop effective treatments. Baicalin is a natural flavonoid, extracted from a traditional medicinal plant, previously reported with anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we used pharmacophore fitting and molecular docking to screen and determine docking patterns and the binding affinity of baicalin on 3 major targets of SARS-CoV-2 (3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease [3CLpro], papain-like protease [PLpro], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). The obtained data revealed that baicalin has high pharmacophore fitting on 3CLpro and predicted good binding affinity on PLpro. Moreover, using the enzymatic assay, we examined the inhibitory effect of baicalin in vitro on the screened enzymes. Baicalin also exhibits inhibitory effect on these proteases in vitro. Additionally, we performed pharmacophore-based screening of baicalin on human targets and conducted pathway analysis to explore the potential cytoprotective effects of baicalin in the host cell that may be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment. The result suggested that baicalin has multiple targets in human cell that may induce multiple pharmacological effects. The result of pathway analysis implied that these targets may be associated with baicalin-induced bioactivities that are involved with signals of pro-inflammation factors, such as cytokine and chemokine. Taken together with supportive data from the literature, the bioactivities of bailalin may be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment by reducing cytokine-induced acute inflammation. In conclusion, baicalin is potentially a good candidate for developing new therapeutic to treat COVID-19.
Masoudi-Sobhanzadeh et al., Structure-based drug repurposing against COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases: methods, resources and discoveries, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab113
AbstractTo attain promising pharmacotherapies, researchers have applied drug repurposing (DR) techniques to discover the candidate medicines to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Although many DR approaches have been introduced for treating different diseases, only structure-based DR (SBDR) methods can be employed as the first therapeutic option against the COVID-19 pandemic because they rely on the rudimentary information about the diseases such as the sequence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 genome. Hence, to try out new treatments for the disease, the first attempts have been made based on the SBDR methods which seem to be among the proper choices for discovering the potential medications against the emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Given the importance of SBDR approaches, in the present review, well-known SBDR methods are summarized, and their merits are investigated. Then, the databases and software applications, utilized for repurposing the drugs against COVID-19, are introduced. Besides, the identified drugs are categorized based on their targets. Finally, a comparison is made between the SBDR approaches and other DR methods, and some possible future directions are proposed.
Jamal, Q., Antiviral Potential of Plants against COVID-19 during Outbreaks—An Update, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms232113564
Several human diseases are caused by viruses, including cancer, Type I diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, people have suffered greatly from viral diseases such as polio, mumps, measles, dengue fever, SARS, MERS, AIDS, chikungunya fever, encephalitis, and influenza. Recently, COVID-19 has become a pandemic in most parts of the world. Although vaccines are available to fight the infection, their safety and clinical trial data are still questionable. Social distancing, isolation, the use of sanitizer, and personal productive strategies have been implemented to prevent the spread of the virus. Moreover, the search for a potential therapeutic molecule is ongoing. Based on experiences with outbreaks of SARS and MERS, many research studies reveal the potential of medicinal herbs/plants or chemical compounds extracted from them to counteract the effects of these viral diseases. COVID-19′s current status includes a decrease in infection rates as a result of large-scale vaccination program implementation by several countries. But it is still very close and needs to boost people’s natural immunity in a cost-effective way through phytomedicines because many underdeveloped countries do not have their own vaccination facilities. In this article, phytomedicines as plant parts or plant-derived metabolites that can affect the entry of a virus or its infectiousness inside hosts are described. Finally, it is concluded that the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants must be analyzed and evaluated entirely in the control of COVID-19 in cases of uncontrollable SARS infection.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Lin et al., Inhibitory Efficacy of Main Components of Scutellaria baicalensis on the Interaction between Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 and Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms25052935
Blocking the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) protein serves as a therapeutic strategy for treating COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments containing bioactive products could alleviate the symptoms of severe COVID-19. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has complicated the process of developing broad-spectrum drugs. As such, the aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of TCM treatments against SARS-CoV-2 variants through targeting the interaction of the viral spike protein with the hACE2 receptor. Antiviral activity was systematically evaluated using a pseudovirus system. Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) was found to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it mediated the interaction between the viral spike protein and the hACE2 protein. Moreover, the active molecules of S. baicalensis were identified and analyzed. Baicalein and baicalin, a flavone and a flavone glycoside found in S. baicalensis, respectively, exhibited strong inhibitory activities targeting the viral spike protein and the hACE2 protein, respectively. Under optimized conditions, virus infection was inhibited by 98% via baicalein-treated pseudovirus and baicalin-treated hACE2. In summary, we identified the potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors from S. baicalensis that mediate the interaction between the Omicron spike protein and the hACE2 receptor. Future studies on the therapeutic application of baicalein and baicalin against SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed.
Niarakis et al., Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859
IntroductionThe COVID-19 Disease Map project is a large-scale community effort uniting 277 scientists from 130 Institutions around the globe. We use high-quality, mechanistic content describing SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and develop interoperable bioinformatic pipelines for novel target identification and drug repurposing. MethodsExtensive community work allowed an impressive step forward in building interfaces between Systems Biology tools and platforms. Our framework can link biomolecules from omics data analysis and computational modelling to dysregulated pathways in a cell-, tissue- or patient-specific manner. Drug repurposing using text mining and AI-assisted analysis identified potential drugs, chemicals and microRNAs that could target the identified key factors.ResultsResults revealed drugs already tested for anti-COVID-19 efficacy, providing a mechanistic context for their mode of action, and drugs already in clinical trials for treating other diseases, never tested against COVID-19. DiscussionThe key advance is that the proposed framework is versatile and expandable, offering a significant upgrade in the arsenal for virus-host interactions and other complex pathologies.
Gao et al., Chemical Compositions of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. (Huangqin) Extracts and Their Effects on ACE2 Binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein, ACE2 Activity, and Free Radicals, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms25042045
The water and ethanol extracts of huangqin, the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. with potential antiviral properties and antioxidant activities, were investigated for their chemical profiles and their abilities to interfere with the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2, inhibiting ACE2 activity and scavenging free radicals. A total of 76 compounds were tentatively identified from the extracts. The water extract showed a greater inhibition on the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2, but less inhibition on ACE2 activity than that of the ethanol extract on a per botanical weight concentration basis. The total phenolic content was 65.27 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry botanical and the scavenging capacities against HO●, DPPH●, and ABTS●+ were 1369.39, 334.37, and 533.66 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry botanical for the water extract, respectively. These values were greater than those of the ethanol extract, with a TPC of 20.34 mg GAE/g, and 217.17, 10.93, and 50.21 µmol TE/g against HO●, DPPH●, and ABTS●+, respectively. The results suggested the potential use of huangqin as a functional food ingredient in preventing COVID-19.
Alkafaas et al., A study on the effect of natural products against the transmission of B.1.1.529 Omicron, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02160-6
Abstract Background The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic resulted in a successful vaccination program launched by the World Health Organization. However, a large population is still unvaccinated, leading to the emergence of mutated strains like alpha, beta, delta, and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Recent reports from the World Health Organization raised concerns about the Omicron variant, which emerged in South Africa during a surge in COVID-19 cases in November 2021. Vaccines are not proven completely effective or safe against Omicron, leading to clinical trials for combating infection by the mutated virus. The absence of suitable pharmaceuticals has led scientists and clinicians to search for alternative and supplementary therapies, including dietary patterns, to reduce the effect of mutated strains. Main body This review analyzed Coronavirus aetiology, epidemiology, and natural products for combating Omicron. Although the literature search did not include keywords related to in silico or computational research, in silico investigations were emphasized in this study. Molecular docking was implemented to compare the interaction between natural products and Chloroquine with the ACE2 receptor protein amino acid residues of Omicron. The global Omicron infection proceeding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was also elucidated. The docking results suggest that DGCG may bind to the ACE2 receptor three times more effectively than standard chloroquine. Conclusion The emergence of the Omicron variant has highlighted the need for alternative therapies to reduce the impact of mutated strains. The current review suggests that natural products such as DGCG may be effective in binding to the ACE2 receptor and combating the Omicron variant, however, further research is required to validate the results of this study and explore the potential of natural products to mitigate COVID-19. Graphical abstract
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Low et al., COVID-19 Therapeutic Potential of Natural Products, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24119589
Despite the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and management are now considerably regulated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component), have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Their abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and readily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Yang et al., A Comprehensive Review of Natural Flavonoids with Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062735
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has majorly impacted public health and economies worldwide. Although several effective vaccines and drugs are now used to prevent and treat COVID-19, natural products, especially flavonoids, showed great therapeutic potential early in the pandemic and thus attracted particular attention. Quercetin, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), and luteolin are among the most studied flavonoids in this field. Flavonoids can directly or indirectly exert antiviral activities, such as the inhibition of virus invasion and the replication and inhibition of viral proteases. In addition, flavonoids can modulate the levels of interferon and proinflammatory factors. We have reviewed the previously reported relevant literature researching the pharmacological anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of flavonoids where structures, classifications, synthetic pathways, and pharmacological effects are summarized. There is no doubt that flavonoids have great potential in the treatment of COVID-19. However, most of the current research is still in the theoretical stage. More studies are recommended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.
Azeem et al., Virtual screening of phytochemicals by targeting multiple proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies, International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/03946320221142793
Objective Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. Methods In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. Results The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. Conclusion The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
Bijelić et al., Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2—Clinical Evidence, Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11111614
The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in December 2019. Due to the rapid spread of the disease and the lack of adequate therapy, the use of plants that have a long history in the treatment of viral infections has often been considered. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief review of the literature on the use of phytochemicals during the new pandemic. An extensive search of published works was performed through platforms Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science and Numerous preclinical studies on the use of phytochemicals (quercetin, curcumin, baicalin, kaempferol, resveratrol, glycyrrhizin, lycorine, colchicine) against SARS-CoV-2 have shown that these components can be effective in the prevention and treatment of this infection. Clinical research has proven that the use of black cumin and green propolis as well as quercetin has positive effects. As for other phytochemicals, in addition to preclinical testing which has already been carried out, it would be necessary to conduct clinical tests in order to assert their effectiveness. For those phytochemicals whose clinical efficacy has been proven, it would be necessary to conduct research on a larger number of patients, so that the conclusions are more representative.
Flores-Félix et al., Consumption of Phenolic-Rich Food and Dietary Supplements as a Key Tool in SARS-CoV-19 Infection, Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10092084
The first cases of COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, were reported in December 2019. The vertiginous worldwide expansion of SARS-CoV-2 caused the collapse of health systems in several countries due to the high severity of the COVID-19. In addition to the vaccines, the search for active compounds capable of preventing and/or fighting the infection has been the main direction of research. Since the beginning of this pandemic, some evidence has highlighted the importance of a phenolic-rich diet as a strategy to reduce the progression of this disease, including the severity of the symptoms. Some of these compounds (e.g., curcumin, gallic acid or quercetin) already showed capacity to limit the infection of viruses by inhibiting entry into the cell through its binding to protein Spike, regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, disrupting the replication in cells by inhibition of viral proteases, and/or suppressing and modulating the host’s immune response. Therefore, this review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential of phenolics to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
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