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Auranofin for COVID-19

Auranofin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Gysi et al., Network Medicine Framework for Identifying Drug Repurposing Opportunities for COVID-19, arXiv, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2004.07229
The current pandemic has highlighted the need for methodologies that can quickly and reliably prioritize clinically approved compounds for their potential effectiveness for SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the past decade, network medicine has developed and validated multiple predictive algorithms for drug repurposing, exploiting the sub-cellular network-based relationship between a drug's targets and disease genes. Here, we deployed algorithms relying on artificial intelligence, network diffusion, and network proximity, tasking each of them to rank 6,340 drugs for their expected efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. To test the predictions, we used as ground truth 918 drugs that had been experimentally screened in VeroE6 cells, and the list of drugs under clinical trial, that capture the medical community's assessment of drugs with potential COVID-19 efficacy. We find that while most algorithms offer predictive power for these ground truth data, no single method offers consistently reliable outcomes across all datasets and metrics. This prompted us to develop a multimodal approach that fuses the predictions of all algorithms, showing that a consensus among the different predictive methods consistently exceeds the performance of the best individual pipelines. We find that 76 of the 77 drugs that successfully reduced viral infection do not bind the proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that these drugs rely on network-based actions that cannot be identified using docking-based strategies. These advances offer a methodological pathway to identify repurposable drugs for future pathogens and neglected diseases underserved by the costs and extended timeline of de novo drug development.
He et al., Molecules inhibit the enzyme activity of 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease of SARS-CoV-2 virus: the experimental and theory studies, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.120642
SummarySARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a world public health threat. Herein, we report that the clinical approved auranofin could perfectly inhibit the activity of 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2. Gold cluster could significantly inhibit 3CLpro of SARS-COV-2. Phenyl isothiocyanate and Vitamin K3 could well suppress the activity of 3CLpro. For Mpro inhibition, IC50 of auranofin, Vitamin K3, phenyl isothiocyanate, gold cluster are about 0.51μM, 7.96μM, 10.13μM, 1.61μM, respectively. These compounds may be with potentials for treatment SARS-CoV-2 virus replication. Especially for FDA approved auranofin, it is an anti-inflammation drug in clinic, thus it may with strong potential to inhibit virus replication and suppress the inflammation damage in COVID-19 patients. Gold cluster is with better safety index and well anti-inflammation in vitro/vivo, therefore it is with potential to inhibit virus replication and suppress the inflammation damage caused by COVID-19 virus. As Au(I) ion is active metabolism specie derived from gold compounds or gold clusters in vivo, further computational studies revealed Au ion could tightly bind thiol group of Cys145 residue of 3CLpro thus inhibit enzyme activity. Also, phenyl isothiocyanate and Vitamin K3 may interact with thiol group of Cys145 via Michael addition reaction, molecular dynamic (MD) theory studied are applied to confirmed these small molecules are stable in the pocket and inhibit Mpro activity.
Chen et al., A high-throughput screen for TMPRSS2 expression identifies FDA-approved compounds that can limit SARS-CoV-2 entry, Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24156-y
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) is the pathogenic coronavirus responsible for the global pandemic of COVID-19 disease. The Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 attaches to host lung epithelial cells through the cell surface receptor ACE2, a process dependent on host proteases including TMPRSS2. Here, we identify small molecules that reduce surface expression of TMPRSS2 using a library of 2,560 FDA-approved or current clinical trial compounds. We identify homoharringtonine and halofuginone as the most attractive agents, reducing endogenous TMPRSS2 expression at sub-micromolar concentrations. These effects appear to be mediated by a drug-induced alteration in TMPRSS2 protein stability. We further demonstrate that halofuginone modulates TMPRSS2 levels through proteasomal-mediated degradation that involves the E3 ubiquitin ligase component DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1). Finally, cells exposed to homoharringtonine and halofuginone, at concentrations of drug known to be achievable in human plasma, demonstrate marked resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection in both live and pseudoviral in vitro models. Given the safety and pharmacokinetic data already available for the compounds identified in our screen, these results should help expedite the rational design of human clinical trials designed to combat active COVID-19 infection.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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