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Amoxicillin for COVID-19

Amoxicillin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Mostafa et al., FDA-Approved Drugs with Potent In Vitro Antiviral Activity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph13120443
(1) Background: Drug repositioning is an unconventional drug discovery approach to explore new therapeutic benefits of existing drugs. Currently, it emerges as a rapid avenue to alleviate the COVID-19 pandemic disease. (2) Methods: Herein, we tested the antiviral activity of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, commonly prescribed to relieve respiratory symptoms, against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the viral causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. (3) Results: Of these FDA-approved antimicrobial drugs, Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide showed a promising ability to hinder the replication of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate, with IC50 of 0.32, 0.16, and 1.29 µM, respectively. We provided evidence that several antihistamine and anti-inflammatory drugs could partially reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Furthermore, this study showed that Azithromycin can selectively impair SARS-CoV-2 replication, but not the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). A virtual screening study illustrated that Azithromycin, Niclosamide, and Nitazoxanide bind to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Protein data bank (PDB) ID: 6lu7) in binding mode similar to the reported co-crystalized ligand. Also, Niclosamide displayed hydrogen bond (HB) interaction with the key peptide moiety GLN: 493A of the spike glycoprotein active site. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that Piroxicam should be prescribed in combination with Azithromycin for COVID-19 patients.
Alamgir et al., Drug repositioning candidates identified using in-silico quasi-quantum molecular simulation demonstrate reduced COVID-19 mortality in 1.5M patient records, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254110
ABSTRACTBackgroundDrug repositioning is a key component of COVID-19 pandemic response, through identification of existing drugs that can effectively disrupt COVID-19 disease processes, contributing valuable insights into disease pathways. Traditional non in silico drug repositioning approaches take substantial time and cost to discover effect and, crucially, to validate repositioned effects.MethodsUsing a novel in-silico quasi-quantum molecular simulation platform that analyzes energies and electron densities of both target proteins and candidate interruption compounds on High Performance Computing (HPC), we identified a list of FDA-approved compounds with potential to interrupt specific SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Subsequently we used 1.5M patient records from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative to create matched cohorts to refine our in-silico hits to those candidates that show statistically significant clinical effect.ResultsWe identified four drugs, Metformin, Triamcinolone, Amoxicillin and Hydrochlorothiazide, that were associated with reduced mortality by 27%, 26%, 26%, and 23%, respectively, in COVID-19 patients.ConclusionsTogether, these findings provide support to our hypothesis that in-silico simulation of active compounds against SARS-CoV-2 proteins followed by statistical analysis of electronic health data results in effective therapeutics identification.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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