Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All acetaminophen studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchAcetaminophenAcetaminophen (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

To clarify the safety profile of paracetamol for home-care patients with COVID-19: a real-world cohort study, with nested case–control analysis, in primary care

Lapi et al., Internal and Emergency Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1
Jul 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Death/hospitalization -15% Improvement Relative Risk Death/hospitalization (b) -29% Death/hospitalization (c) -75% late Acetaminophen  Lapi et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with acetaminophen beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Italy No significant difference in death/hosp. c19early.org Lapi et al., Internal and Emergency Me.., Jul 2022 Favorsacetaminophen Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
1st treatment shown to increase risk in November 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000029 from 27 studies, but still recommended in 63 countries.
* From meta analysis with ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective paracetamol use with a primary care database in Italy, showing no significant difference in hospitalization/death for use 0-3 and 4-7 days from diagnosis, and significantly higher risk for use >7 days from diagnosis. Confounding by indication may have a greater effect on late usage.
Paracetamol is also known as acetaminophen, Tylenol, Panadol, Calpol, Tempra, Calprofen, Doliprane, Efferalgan, Grippostad C, Dolo, Acamol, Fevadol, Crocin, and Perfalgan.
risk of death/hospitalization, 15.0% higher, OR 1.15, p = 0.22, adjusted per study, early use, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death/hospitalization, 29.0% higher, OR 1.29, p = 0.52, adjusted per study, mid-term use, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death/hospitalization, 75.0% higher, OR 1.75, p < 0.001, adjusted per study, late use, RR approximated with OR, late treatment result, excluded in exclusion analyses: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lapi et al., 30 Jul 2022, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact: lapi.francesco@simg.it.
This PaperAcetaminophenAll
To clarify the safety profile of paracetamol for home-care patients with COVID-19: a real-world cohort study, with nested case–control analysis, in primary care
Francesco Lapi, Ettore Marconi, Ignazio Grattagliano, Alessandro Rossi, Diego Fornasari, Alberto Magni, Pierangelo Lora Aprile, Claudio Cricelli
Internal and Emergency Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1
Background and objective This study aimed to compare the prescribing patterns of paracetamol in COVID-19 with those for similar respiratory conditions and investigated the association between paracetamol use and COVID-19-related hospitalization/death. Methods Using a primary care data source, we conducted a cohort study to calculate the incidence rate of paracetamol use in COVID-19 and for similar respiratory conditions in 2020 and 2019 (i.e. pre-pandemic phase), respectively. In the study cohort, we nested a case-control analyses to investigate the association between paracetamol use and COVID-19-related hospitalizations/deaths. Results Overall, 1554 (33.4 per 1000) and 2566 patients (78.3 per 1000) were newly prescribed with paracetamol to treat COVID-19 or other respiratory conditions, respectively. Those aged 35-44 showed the highest prevalence rate (44.7 or 99.0 per 1000), while the oldest category reported the lowest value (17.8 or 39.8 per 1000). There was no association for early (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.92-1.43) or mid-term (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.61-2.73) users of paracetamol vs. non-users. Instead, the late users of paracetamol showed a statistically significant increased risk of hospitalization/death (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.4-2.2). Conclusions Our findings provide reassuring evidence on the use and safety profile of paracetamol to treat early symptoms of COVID-19 as in other respiratory infections.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s11739-022-03054-1. Authors contribution FL, IG, AR, DF, EM, AM, PLA and CC: have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data. FL, EM, IG, DF, PLR and CC: have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. CC: is responsible for the integrity of the work, and he given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. FL: agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Conflict of interest FL and EM provided consultancies in protocol preparation for epidemiological studies and data analyses for Angelini, Pfizer, and GSK. AR, IG, AM, PLA, and CC provided clinical consultancies for Angelini, Pfizer, and GSK. DF has no conflict of interest to disclose. Ethical approval According to a by-law on the classification and implementation of observational drug-related research, as issued by the Italian National Drug Agency (an entity belonging to the Italian Ministry of Health), the present study does not require approval by an Ethics Committee in Italy (Italian Drug Agency..
References
Bianchini, Brignoli, Cricelli C VIII Report Health Search
Breslow, Statistics in epidemiology: the case-control study, J Am Stat Assoc, doi:10.1080/01621459.1996.10476660
Collie, Champion, Moultrie, Effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine against omicron variant in South Africa, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMC2119270/SUPPL_FILE/NEJMC2119270_DISCLOSURES.PDF
Collins, Reitsma, Altman, Moons, Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement, J Clin Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.11.010
Cricelli, Mazzaglia, Samani, Prevalence estimates for chronic diseases in Italy: exploring the differences between self-report and primary care databases, J Pub Health Med
Dimova, Hoet, Dinsdale, Nemery, Acetaminophen decreases intracellular glutathione levels and modulates cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes in vitro, Int J Biochem Cell Biol, doi:10.1016/J.BIOCEL.2005.03.005
Dinnes, Deeks, Berhane, Rapid, point-of-care antigen and molecular-based tests for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013705.PUB2
Dri, How to treat COVID-19 patients at home in the Italian context: an expert opinion, Infect Dis Rep, doi:10.3390/IDR13010028
Elliott, Whitaker, Bodinier, Predictive symptoms for COVID-19 in the community: REACT-1 study of over 1 million people, PLOS Med, doi:10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003777
Enners, Gradl, Kieble, Utilization of drugs with reports on potential efficacy or harm on COVID-19 before, during, and after the first pandemic wave, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, doi:10.1002/pds.5324
Faillie, Indication bias or protopathic bias?, Br J Clin Pharmacol, doi:10.1111/BCP.12705
Guglielmi, Bellia, Pecchioli, What is the actual epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolemia in Italy? Int J Cardiol, Evidence from a National Primary Care Database, doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.269
Hempenius, Groenwold, De Boer, Drug exposure misclassification in pharmacoepidemiology: sources and relative impact, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, doi:10.1002/pds.5346
Kennon-Mcgill, Mcgill, Extrahepatic toxicity of acetaminophen: critical evaluation of the evidence and proposed mechanisms, J Clin Transl Res
Lapi, Domnich, Marconi, Predicting the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in primary care: development and validation of a vulnerability index for equitable allocation of effective vaccines, Expert Rev Vaccines, doi:10.1080/14760584.2022.2019582
Lapi, Simonetti, Michieli, Assessing 5-year incidence rates and determinants of osteoporotic fractures in primary care, Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.09.048
Lawrenson, Williams, Farmer, Clinical information for research; the use of general practice databases, J Public Health Med
Mitchell, Jollows, Metabolic activation of drugs to toxic substances, Gastroenterology, doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(75)80025-4
Orsini, Bellocco, Bottai, A tool for deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis of epidemiologic studies, Stata J
Pandolfi, Chirumbolo, Home therapy of COVID-19 at the earliest may greatly prevent hospitalization, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, doi:10.1111/bcpt.13650
Pandolfi, Chirumbolo, Ricevuti, Home pharmacological therapy in early COVID-19 to prevent hospitalization and reduce mortality: time for a suitable proposal, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, doi:10.1111/bcpt.13690
Pandolfi, Simonetti, Ricevuti, Chirumbolo, Paracetamol in the home treatment of early COVID-19 symptoms: a possible foe rather than a friend for elderly patients?, J Med Virol
Prada, Santos, Baião, Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Severity Associated With Exposure to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, J. Clin, Pharmacol
Ranstam, Multiple P-values and Bonferroni correction, Osteoarthr Cartil, doi:10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.008
Schneeweiss, Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of therapeutics, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, doi:10.1002/pds.1200
Suter, Consolaro, Pedroni, A simple, home-therapy algorithm to prevent hospitalisation for COVID-19 patients: a retrospective observational matched-cohort study, doi:10.1016/J.ECLINM.2021.100941
Suter, Consolaro, Pedroni, A simple, hometherapy algorithm to prevent hospitalisation for COVID-19 patients: a retrospective observational matched-cohort study, EClinicalMedicine
Tamim, Monfared, Lelorier, Application of lag-time into exposure definitions to control for protopathic bias, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, doi:10.1002/PDS.1360
Tuccori, Convertino, Ferraro, The impact of the COVID-19 "Infodemic" on drug-utilization behaviors: implications for pharmacovigilance, Drug Saf, doi:10.1007/S40264-020-00965-W
Vaja, Chan, Ferreira, The COVID-19 ibuprofen controversy: a systematic review of NSAIDs in adult acute lower respiratory tract infections, Br J Clin Pharmacol, doi:10.1111/BCP.14514
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-08-09T17:41:59Z', 'timestamp': 1660066919325}, 'reference-count': 35, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-07-30T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1659139200000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-07-30T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1659139200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}], 'funder': [{'name': 'Italian College of General Practitioners and Primary Care'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['link.springer.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'DOI': '10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]], 'date-time': '2022-07-30T19:02:53Z', 'timestamp': 1659207773000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'To clarify the safety profile of paracetamol for home-care patients with COVID-19: a real-world ' 'cohort study, with nested case–control analysis, in primary care', 'prefix': '10.1007', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4342-9128', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Francesco', 'family': 'Lapi', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ettore', 'family': 'Marconi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ignazio', 'family': 'Grattagliano', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alessandro', 'family': 'Rossi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Diego', 'family': 'Fornasari', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alberto', 'family': 'Magni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Pierangelo', 'family': 'Lora Aprile', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Claudio', 'family': 'Cricelli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '297', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '3054_CR1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e1003777', 'DOI': '10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003777', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'J Elliott', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Elliott J, Whitaker M, Bodinier B et al (2021) Predictive symptoms for ' 'COVID-19 in the community: REACT-1 study of over 1 million people. PLOS ' 'Med 18:e1003777. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003777', 'journal-title': 'PLOS Med'}, { 'key': '3054_CR2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'J Dinnes', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Dinnes J, Deeks JJ, Berhane S et al (2021) Rapid, point-of-care antigen ' 'and molecular-based tests for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. ' 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013705.PUB2', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD013705.PUB2'}, { 'key': '3054_CR3', 'unstructured': 'Home care for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and ' 'management of their contacts. ' 'https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/home-care-for-patients-with-suspected-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-presenting-with-mild-symptoms-and-management-of-contacts. ' 'Accessed 21 Feb 2022'}, { 'key': '3054_CR4', 'unstructured': 'NICE Overview | COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing COVID-19 | Guidance | ' 'NICE. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng191. Accessed 20 Feb 2022'}, { 'key': '3054_CR5', 'unstructured': 'CDC Treatments Your Healthcare Provider Might Recommend if You Are Sick ' '| CDC. ' 'https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/your-health/treatments-for-severe-illness.html. ' 'Accessed 20 Feb 2022'}, { 'key': '3054_CR6', 'unstructured': 'AIFA Medicines usable for treatment of COVID-19 disease | Italian ' 'Medicines Agency. ' 'https://www.aifa.gov.it/en/aggiornamento-sui-farmaci-utilizzabili-per-il-trattamento-della-malattia-covid19. ' 'Accessed 22 Feb 2022'}, { 'key': '3054_CR7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'DG DrI', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'DrI DG, A R et al (2021) How to treat COVID-19 patients at home in the ' 'Italian context: an expert opinion. Infect Dis Rep. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3390/IDR13010028', 'journal-title': 'Infect Dis Rep', 'DOI': '10.3390/IDR13010028'}, { 'key': '3054_CR8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '699', 'DOI': '10.1007/S40264-020-00965-W', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'M Tuccori', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Tuccori M, Convertino I, Ferraro S et al (2020) The impact of the ' 'COVID-19 “Infodemic” on drug-utilization behaviors: implications for ' 'pharmacovigilance. Drug Saf 43:699–709. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/S40264-020-00965-W', 'journal-title': 'Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '3054_CR9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1493', 'DOI': '10.1002/pds.5324', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'S Enners', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Enners S, Gradl G, Kieble M et al (2021) Utilization of drugs with ' 'reports on potential efficacy or harm on COVID-19 before, during, and ' 'after the first pandemic wave. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 30:1493–1503. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5324', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '3054_CR10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5704', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.27158', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'S Pandolfi', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Pandolfi S, Simonetti V, Ricevuti G, Chirumbolo S (2021) Paracetamol in ' 'the home treatment of early COVID-19 symptoms: a possible foe rather ' 'than a friend for elderly patients? J Med Virol 93:5704–5706', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100941', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'F Suter', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Suter F, Consolaro E, Pedroni S et al (2021) A simple, home-therapy ' 'algorithm to prevent hospitalisation for COVID-19 patients: a ' 'retrospective observational matched-cohort study. EClinicalMedicine ' '37:100941', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine'}, { 'key': '3054_CR12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1727', 'DOI': '10.1016/J.BIOCEL.2005.03.005', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'S Dimova', 'year': '2005', 'unstructured': 'Dimova S, Hoet PHM, Dinsdale D, Nemery B (2005) Acetaminophen decreases ' 'intracellular glutathione levels and modulates cytokine production in ' 'human alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes in vitro. Int J ' 'Biochem Cell Biol 37:1727–1737. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIOCEL.2005.03.005', 'journal-title': 'Int J Biochem Cell Biol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '225', 'DOI': '10.1111/bcpt.13690', 'volume': '130', 'author': 'S Pandolfi', 'year': '2022', 'unstructured': 'Pandolfi S, Chirumbolo S, Ricevuti G et al (2022) Home pharmacological ' 'therapy in early COVID-19 to prevent hospitalization and reduce ' 'mortality: time for a suitable proposal. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ' '130:225–239. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13690', 'journal-title': 'Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR14', 'unstructured': 'Battaggia A Un algoritmo terapeutico domiciliare per prevenire i ' 'ricoveri? I risultati possono essere dovuti a sbilanciamento e a errore ' 'random - E&P Repository. ' 'https://repo.epiprev.it/index.php/download/un-algoritmo-terapeutico-domiciliare-per-prevenire-i-ricoveri-i-risultati-possono-essere-dovuti-a-sbilanciamento-e-a-errore-random/. ' 'Accessed 21 Feb 2022'}, { 'key': '3054_CR15', 'volume-title': 'Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Severity Associated With ' 'Exposure to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review and ' 'Meta-Analysis', 'author': 'L Prada', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Prada L, Santos DC, Baião RA et al (2021) Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection ' 'and COVID-19 Severity Associated With Exposure to Nonsteroidal ' 'Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin, ' 'Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '779', 'DOI': '10.1111/BCP.12705', 'volume': '80', 'author': 'JL Faillie', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Faillie JL (2015) Indication bias or protopathic bias? Br J Clin ' 'Pharmacol 80:779–780. https://doi.org/10.1111/BCP.12705', 'journal-title': 'Br J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '250', 'DOI': '10.1002/PDS.1360', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'H Tamim', 'year': '2007', 'unstructured': 'Tamim H, Tahami Monfared AA, LeLorier J (2007) Application of lag-time ' 'into exposure definitions to control for protopathic bias. ' 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:250–258. https://doi.org/10.1002/PDS.1360', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '3054_CR18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '776', 'DOI': '10.1111/BCP.14514', 'volume': '87', 'author': 'R Vaja', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Vaja R, Chan JSK, Ferreira P et al (2021) The COVID-19 ibuprofen ' 'controversy: a systematic review of NSAIDs in adult acute lower ' 'respiratory tract infections. Br J Clin Pharmacol 87:776–784. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1111/BCP.14514', 'journal-title': 'Br J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '299', 'DOI': '10.1093/pubmed/21.3.299', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'R Lawrenson', 'year': '1999', 'unstructured': 'Lawrenson R, Williams T, Farmer R (1999) Clinical information for ' 'research; the use of general practice databases. J Public Health Med ' '21:299–304', 'journal-title': 'J Public Health Med'}, { 'key': '3054_CR20', 'unstructured': 'Bianchini E, Brignoli O, Cricelli C VIII Report Health Search. Available ' 'at: ' 'http://healthsearch.it/documenti/Archivio/Report/VIIIReport_2013-2014/index.html.'}, { 'key': '3054_CR21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'F Lapi', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Lapi F, Domnich A, Marconi E et al (2021) Predicting the risk of severe ' 'COVID-19 outcomes in primary care: development and validation of a ' 'vulnerability index for equitable allocation of effective vaccines. ' 'Expert Rev Vaccines. https://doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2022.2019582', 'journal-title': 'Expert Rev Vaccines', 'DOI': '10.1080/14760584.2022.2019582'}, { 'key': '3054_CR22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'F Lapi', 'year': '2012', 'unstructured': 'Lapi F, Simonetti M, Michieli R et al (2012) Assessing 5-year incidence ' 'rates and determinants of osteoporotic fractures in primary care. Bone. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2011.09.048', 'journal-title': 'Bone', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bone.2011.09.048'}, { 'key': '3054_CR23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'volume-title': 'What is the actual epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolemia in ' 'Italy?', 'author': 'V Guglielmi', 'year': '2016', 'unstructured': 'Guglielmi V, Bellia A, Pecchioli S et al (2016) What is the actual ' 'epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolemia in Italy? Int J Cardiol, ' 'Evidence from a National Primary Care Database. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.269', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.269'}, { 'key': '3054_CR24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '254', 'DOI': '10.1093/pubmed/fdg060', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'C Cricelli', 'year': '2003', 'unstructured': 'Cricelli C, Mazzaglia G, Samani F et al (2003) Prevalence estimates for ' 'chronic diseases in Italy: exploring the differences between self-report ' 'and primary care databases. J Pub Health Med 25:254–257', 'journal-title': 'J Pub Health Med'}, { 'key': '3054_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'NE Breslow', 'year': '1996', 'unstructured': 'Breslow NE (1996) Statistics in epidemiology: the case-control study. J ' 'Am Stat Assoc. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1996.10476660', 'journal-title': 'J Am Stat Assoc', 'DOI': '10.1080/01621459.1996.10476660'}, { 'key': '3054_CR26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '134', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.11.010', 'volume': '68', 'author': 'GS Collins', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Collins GS, Reitsma JB, Altman DG, Moons KGM (2015) Transparent ' 'reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis ' 'or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement. J Clin Epidemiol ' '68:134–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.11.010', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Epidemiol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '29', 'DOI': '10.1177/1536867X0800800103', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'N Orsini', 'year': '2008', 'unstructured': 'Orsini N, Bellocco R, Bottai M et al (2008) A tool for deterministic and ' 'probabilistic sensitivity analysis of epidemiologic studies. Stata J ' '8:29–48', 'journal-title': 'Stata J'}, { 'key': '3054_CR28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1703', 'DOI': '10.1002/pds.5346', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'M Hempenius', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Hempenius M, Groenwold RHH, de Boer A et al (2021) Drug exposure ' 'misclassification in pharmacoepidemiology: sources and relative impact. ' 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 30:1703–1715. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.5346', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '3054_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'F Suter', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Suter F, Consolaro E, Pedroni S et al (2021) A simple, home-therapy ' 'algorithm to prevent hospitalisation for COVID-19 patients: a ' 'retrospective observational matched-cohort study. EClinicalMedicine. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECLINM.2021.100941', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine', 'DOI': '10.1016/J.ECLINM.2021.100941'}, { 'key': '3054_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '395', 'DOI': '10.1111/bcpt.13650', 'volume': '129', 'author': 'S Pandolfi', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Pandolfi S, Chirumbolo S (2021) Home therapy of COVID-19 at the earliest ' 'may greatly prevent hospitalization. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ' '129:395–396. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13650', 'journal-title': 'Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol'}, { 'key': '3054_CR31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '392', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0016-5085(75)80025-4', 'volume': '68', 'author': 'JR Mitchell', 'year': '1975', 'unstructured': 'Mitchell JR, Jollows DJ (1975) Metabolic activation of drugs to toxic ' 'substances. Gastroenterology 68:392–410. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(75)80025-4', 'journal-title': 'Gastroenterology'}, { 'key': '3054_CR32', 'first-page': '297', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'S Kennon-McGill', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Kennon-McGill S, McGill MR (2018) Extrahepatic toxicity of ' 'acetaminophen: critical evaluation of the evidence and proposed ' 'mechanisms. J Clin Transl Res 3:297–310', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Transl Res'}, { 'key': '3054_CR33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '763', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.008', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'J Ranstam', 'year': '2016', 'unstructured': 'Ranstam J (2016) Multiple P-values and Bonferroni correction. Osteoarthr ' 'Cartil 24:763–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.008', 'journal-title': 'Osteoarthr Cartil'}, { 'key': '3054_CR34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '291', 'DOI': '10.1002/pds.1200', 'volume': '15', 'author': 'S Schneeweiss', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Schneeweiss S (2006) Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for ' 'unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of ' 'therapeutics. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 15:291–303. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.1200', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '3054_CR35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '494', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMC2119270/SUPPL_FILE/NEJMC2119270_DISCLOSURES.PDF', 'volume': '386', 'author': 'S Collie', 'year': '2022', 'unstructured': 'Collie S, Champion J, Moultrie H et al (2022) Effectiveness of BNT162b2 ' 'vaccine against omicron variant in South Africa. N Engl J Med ' '386:494–496. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMC2119270/SUPPL_FILE/NEJMC2119270_DISCLOSURES.PDF', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}], 'container-title': 'Internal and Emergency Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 9]], 'date-time': '2022-08-09T17:19:46Z', 'timestamp': 1660065586000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]]}, 'references-count': 35, 'alternative-id': ['3054'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-022-03054-1', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1828-0447', '1970-9366'], 'subject': ['Emergency Medicine', 'Internal Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Intern Emerg Med', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 30]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '3 June 2022', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '11 July 2022', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '30 July 2022', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, {'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Declarations'}}, { 'value': 'FL and EM provided consultancies in protocol preparation for epidemiological ' 'studies and data analyses for Angelini, Pfizer, and GSK. AR, IG, AM, PLA, and ' 'CC provided clinical consultancies for Angelini, Pfizer, and GSK. DF has no ' 'conflict of interest to disclose.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Conflict of interest'}}, { 'value': 'According to a by-law on the classification and implementation of observational ' 'drug-related research, as issued by the Italian National Drug Agency (an entity ' 'belonging to the Italian Ministry of Health), the present study does not ' 'require approval by an Ethics Committee in Italy (Italian Drug Agency note of 3 ' 'August 2007). This study followed the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki ' 'and compliant with the ENCePP (European Network of Centres for ' 'Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance) Guide on Methodological Standards ' 'in Pharmacoepidemiology.', 'order': 3, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Ethical approval'}}, { 'value': 'The database is fully anonymized.', 'order': 4, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Consent to participate'}}, { 'value': 'Not applicable.', 'order': 5, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Consent for publication'}}, { 'value': 'This content has been made available to all.', 'name': 'free', 'label': 'Free to read'}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit