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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Recovery time 48% Improvement Relative Risk Melatonin  Hosseini et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with melatonin beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 40 patients in Iran Faster recovery with melatonin (p=0.001) Hosseini et al., European J. Pharmacol.., May 2021 Favors melatonin Favors control

Evaluation of Th1 and Th2 mediated cellular and humoral immunity in patients with COVID-19 following the use of melatonin as an adjunctive treatment

Hosseini et al., European Journal of Pharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174193
May 2021  
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Melatonin for COVID-19
10th treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000002 from 18 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, ventilation, and recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
40 hospitalized patients in Iran, 20 treated with melatonin, showing faster recovery and attenuated inflammatory cytokines with treatment.
recovery time, 47.6% lower, relative time 0.52, p = 0.001, treatment 20, control 20.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hosseini et al., 17 May 2021, prospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
This PaperMelatoninAll
Evaluation of Th1 and Th2 mediated cellular and humoral immunity in patients with COVID-19 following the use of melatonin as an adjunctive treatment
Abdolkarim Hosseini, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Hossein Aghamollaei, Mahdi Fasihi Ramandi, Gholamhossein Alishiri, Alireza Shahriary, Kazem Hassanpour, Mahdi Tat, Gholamreza Farnoosh
European Journal of Pharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174193
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Declaration of competing interest None to declare.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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