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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -16% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality/therapeutic failu.. 42% Colchicine  FRAGILE-COLCOVID19  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with colchicine + prednisone beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 54 patients in Spain (March - October 2020) Trial compares with dexamethasone, results vs. placebo may differ Trial underpowered to detect differences c19early.org Hernández-Rodríguez et al., Clinical D.., Sep 2022 Favors colchicine Favors dexamethasone

FRAGILE-COLCOVID19: A Clinical Trial Based on Early Administration of an Oral Combination of Colchicine and Prednisone in Elderly Patients with COVID-19 in Geriatric Facilities

Hernández-Rodríguez et al., Clinical Drug Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2, FRAGILE-COLCOVID19, NCT04492358
Sep 2022  
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Colchicine for COVID-19
5th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000001 from 54 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
RCT 54 elderly patients in Spain comparing colchicine + prednisone vs. dexamethasone, showing lower combined mortality/therapeutic failure with colchicine + prednisone, but no significant difference in mortality. Data appears unreliable, for example authors report 5 deaths (20.97%) in the control arm, however 20.97% does not match the reported (or any) number of patients. Similarly for combined mortality/therapeutic failure where authors report 12 (45.13%) and 6 (28.13%).
risk of death, 16.0% higher, RR 1.16, p = 1.00, treatment 5 of 25 (20.0%), control 5 of 29 (17.2%).
mortality/therapeutic failure, 42.0% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.25, treatment 6 of 25 (24.0%), control 12 of 29 (41.4%), NNT 5.8, combined mortality/therapeutic failure.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hernández-Rodríguez et al., 29 Sep 2022, Randomized Controlled Trial, Spain, peer-reviewed, 90 authors, study period March 2020 - October 2020, this trial compares with another treatment - results may be better when compared to placebo, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with prednisone) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial NCT04492358 (history) (FRAGILE-COLCOVID19). Contact: jhernan@clinic.cat.
This PaperColchicineAll
FRAGILE-COLCOVID19: A Clinical Trial Based on Early Administration of an Oral Combination of Colchicine and Prednisone in Elderly Patients with COVID-19 in Geriatric Facilities
José Hernández-Rodríguez, Julio Durán-Sanclemente, Sergio Prieto-González, Olga Araújo, Teresa Hospital-Vidal, Georgina Casanovas, Víctor Sapena, José Luis Blanco, Alfonso López-Soto, Francisco J Afonso, Jesús Aibar, Xavier Alemany, Luis Aparicio, Yolanda Asensio, Anna Aldea-Parés, Ana B Azuaga, Giuseppe Barilaro, Nieves Benages, Katherine Cajiao, Júlia Calvo, Maria Del Carme Cañueto, Aina Capdevila-Reniu, Irene Carbonell, Miriam Costafreda, Cecilia Cuzco, Anna De-Daniel-Bisbe, Gema Doménech, Mónica Doménech, Gerard Espinosa, Maria Feliu, Alberto Foncillas, Cristina Gabara, Gloria Gámez, Carlos García-Gutiérrez, Lucía García-Jarque, Andrea García-Ortega, Begoña Gómez, Verónica Gómez-Caverzaschi, Vanesa Gómez-Urbano, Tania Gonzalo, Ignacio Grafia, Neus Guasch, Mar Guillén, Ana M Guió, Marta Illa, Marco Inzitari, Maria Joyera, Andrea Ladino, Irina S Luzko-Scheid, Gema M Lledó, Néstor López-Guerra, Daniel Marco, Guillem Masdeu, Ana Matas-García, Irene Macaya, Ferran Masanés, Miriam I Mayor, José C Milisenda, Montse Montero, Verónica Montes, Marc Montoya-Rodés, Núria Moragas, Alma Morancho, Pedro J Moreno, José Naval, Josep Ortega, Anna Pahisa, Martina Pellicé, Sona Pilarcikova, Ester Pujol, Elisabet Rivero, Joan Ribot, Roberto Ríos-Garcés, Olga Rodríguez-Núñez, Omar M Saavedra, Emilio Sacanella, Adelaido Salazar, Adriana San Miguel, Amparo Sánchez-Buitrago, Víctor Sánchez-Palacios, Ángeles Sanz, Ferran Seguí, Adrià Tomé-Pérez, Manuel Torres-Elorza, Montse Tuset, Helena Ventosa, Roser Ventura, Esther Viñas-Esmel, Carles Zamora
Clinical Drug Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2
Background Unprotected and fragile elderly people in nursing homes experienced the highest mortality rates during the initial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective Our aim was to study the role of two oral anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine and prednisone, in elderly patients with COVID-19 in geriatric centers. Methods A phase II/III, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial was performed in a geriatric population comparing the efficacy and safety of an oral combination of prednisone (60 mg/day for 3 days) and colchicine (at loading doses of 1-1.5 mg/day for 3 days, followed by 0.5 mg/day for 11 days) with the standard treatment, based on intravenous dexamethasone. Primary endpoints assessed the efficacy in reducing death or the modified endpoint death/therapeutic failure to the study drugs over a 28-day period, while secondary endpoints included safety, laboratory changes, and additional therapies used. Results Fifty-four patients (35 female/19 male) were enrolled, 25 (46.3%) of whom were allocated to the experimental arm and 29 (53.7%) to the control arm. At day 28, no differences in deaths were observed. The combination of mortality or therapeutic failure occurred in 12 (45.13%) patients receiving dexamethasone and 6 (28.13%) patients receiving colchicine/ prednisone, resulting in a reduction of risk difference (RD) of − 17% (p = 0.17), with an average reduction of 39% (risk ratio [RR] 0.61) in patients receiving colchicine/prednisone (p = 0.25). Control patients received higher amounts of additional glucocorticoids (p = 0.0095) over a longer time frame (p = 0.0003). Colchicine/prednisone significantly reduced ferritin levels at day 14, as well as d-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at day 28. Adverse events were similar in both groups. Conclusions The combination colchicine/prednisone compared with intravenous dexamethasone has shown a remarkable trend to increase disease survival over a 28-day period in elderly patients requiring oxygen therapy in geriatric centers, without safety issues.
Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s40261-022-01201-2. Declarations Conflict of interest José Hernández-Rodríguez, Julio Durán-Sanclemente, Sergio Prieto-González, Olga Araújo, Teresa Hospital-Vidal, Georgina Casanovas, Víctor Sapena, José Luis Blanco, and Alfonso López-Soto declare no conflicts of interest in this work. Ethics approval This study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee at the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (EudraCT Number 2020-002462-14). Consent to participate All patients or legally authorized representatives signed the informed consent form. Consent for publication Not applicable. Author contributions JHR and JLB were involved in the conceptualization and design of the study protocol. ALS and JDS allowed the launch of the study by providing the geriatric facilities and encouraging the participation of their healthcare personnel. JDS, SPG, OA, THV, and all Members of the FRAGILE-COLCOVID19 Study Group recruited patients, collected data, and/or monitored patients enrolled in the study. VS and GC performed the statistical analysis and summarized the statistical data for the manuscript. JHR was responsible for funding acquisition, project administration and data analysis, and wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to the critical revision and editing of the manuscript and approved its final version. Open Access This article is licensed under a..
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{ 'DOI': '10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2', 'ISSN': ['1173-2563', '1179-1918'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2', 'alternative-id': ['1201'], 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 1, 'value': '5 September 2022'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'First Online', 'name': 'first_online', 'order': 2, 'value': '29 September 2022'}, {'group': {'label': 'Declarations', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 1}, { 'group': {'label': 'Funding', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 2, 'value': 'This study was sponsored by SEID S.A. and the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona ' 'Sponsorship Program, and partially by Alchemlife Iberia S.L. SEID S.A. (Lliçà ' 'de Vall, Barcelona, Spain) also provided the Colchicina SEID<sup>®</sup> ' 'tablets used in the study. None of the sponsors had any role in the study ' 'design or development, data analysis, or manuscript writing.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Conflict of interest', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 3, 'value': 'José Hernández-Rodríguez, Julio Durán-Sanclemente, Sergio Prieto-González, Olga ' 'Araújo, Teresa Hospital-Vidal, Georgina Casanovas, Víctor Sapena, José Luis ' 'Blanco, and Alfonso López-Soto declare no conflicts of interest in this work.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Ethics approval', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 4, 'value': 'This study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee at the ' 'Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (EudraCT Number 2020-002462-14).'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Consent to participate', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 5, 'value': 'All patients or legally authorized representatives signed the informed consent ' 'form.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Consent for publication', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 6, 'value': 'Not applicable.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Availability of data and material', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 7, 'value': 'The data generated during the current study are available from the ' 'corresponding author on reasonable request.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Code availability', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 8, 'value': 'Not applicable.'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Author contributions', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 9, 'value': 'JHR and JLB were involved in the conceptualization and design of the study ' 'protocol. 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RMD Open. 2021;7(1): ' 'e001455.', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.2147/IJGM.S329810', 'author': 'DA Pascual-Figal', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5517', 'journal-title': 'Int J Gen Med.', 'key': '1201_CR43', 'unstructured': 'Pascual-Figal DA, Roura-Piloto AE, Moral-Escudero E, et al. Colchicine ' 'in recently hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a randomized controlled ' 'trial (COL-COVID). Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:5517–26.', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2021/2129006', 'author': 'M Alsultan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2129006', 'journal-title': 'Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis.', 'key': '1201_CR44', 'unstructured': 'Alsultan M, Obeid A, Alsamarrai O, et al. Efficacy of colchicine and ' 'budesonide in improvement outcomes of patients with coronavirus ' 'infection 2019 in Damascus, Syria: a randomized control trial. ' 'Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2021;2021:2129006.', 'volume': '2021', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.18087/cardio.2021.2.n1560', 'author': 'VY Mareev', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '15', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Kardiologiia', 'key': '1201_CR45', 'unstructured': 'Mareev VY, Orlova YA, Plisyk AG, et al. Proactive anti-inflammatory ' 'therapy with colchicine in the treatment of advanced stages of new ' 'coronavirus infection. The first results of the COLORIT study. ' 'Kardiologiia. 2021;61(2):15–27.', 'volume': '61', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ptr.7319', 'author': 'G Pourdowlat', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '891', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Phytother Res', 'key': '1201_CR46', 'unstructured': 'Pourdowlat G, Saghafi F, Mozafari A, et al. Efficacy and safety of ' 'colchicine treatment in patients with COVID-19: a prospective, ' 'multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2022;36(2):891–8.', 'volume': '36', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3399/BJGP.2022.0083', 'author': 'J Dorward', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e446', 'issue': '720', 'journal-title': 'Br J Gen Pract', 'key': '1201_CR47', 'unstructured': 'Dorward J, Yu LM, Hayward G, et al. Colchicine for COVID-19 in adults in ' 'the community (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, adaptive platform ' 'trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2022;72(720):e446–55.', 'volume': '72', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00435-5', 'author': 'Recovery Collaborative Group', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1419', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Respir Med', 'key': '1201_CR48', 'unstructured': 'Recovery Collaborative Group. Colchicine in patients admitted to ' 'hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, ' 'platform trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021;9(12):1419–26.', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.41328', 'author': 'R Diaz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open', 'key': '1201_CR49', 'unstructured': 'Diaz R, Orlandini A, Castellana N, et al. Effect of colchicine vs usual ' 'care alone on intubation and 28-day mortality in patients hospitalized ' 'with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(12): ' 'e2141328.', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11606-021-07203-8', 'author': 'A Absalon-Aguilar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Gen Intern Med', 'key': '1201_CR50', 'unstructured': 'Absalon-Aguilar A, Rull-Gabayet M, Perez-Fragoso A, et al. Colchicine is ' 'safe though ineffective in the treatment of severe COVID-19: a ' 'randomized clinical trial (COLCHIVID). J Gen Intern Med. ' '2022;37(1):4–14.', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101242', 'author': 'HG Gaitan-Duarte', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine.', 'key': '1201_CR51', 'unstructured': 'Gaitan-Duarte HG, Alvarez-Moreno C, Rincon-Rodriguez CJ, et al. ' 'Effectiveness of rosuvastatin plus colchicine, emtricitabine/tenofovir ' 'and combinations thereof in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a ' 'pragmatic, open-label randomized trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2022;43: ' '101242.', 'volume': '43', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'A Mikolajewska', 'first-page': 'CD015045', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'key': '1201_CR52', 'unstructured': 'Mikolajewska A, Fischer AL, Piechotta V, et al. Colchicine for the ' 'treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;10:CD015045.', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102395', 'author': 'A Zein', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syndr', 'key': '1201_CR53', 'unstructured': 'Zein A, Raffaello WM. Effect of colchicine on mortality in patients with ' 'COVID-19—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr. ' '2022;16(2): 102395.', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'CH Lien', 'first-page': '864', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Life (Basel).', 'key': '1201_CR54', 'unstructured': 'Lien CH, Lee MD, Weng SL, et al. Repurposing colchicine in treating ' 'patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Life ' '(Basel). 2021;11(8):864.', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/rmdopen-2021-001746', 'author': 'KG Mehta', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'RMD Open', 'key': '1201_CR55', 'unstructured': 'Mehta KG, Patel T, Chavda PD, Patel P. Efficacy and safety of colchicine ' 'in COVID-19: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. RMD Open. ' '2021;7(3): e001746.', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2021'}, { 'author': 'E De-Miguel-Balsa', 'first-page': '7151', 'issue': '22', 'journal-title': 'Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci', 'key': '1201_CR56', 'unstructured': 'De-Miguel-Balsa E, Estevan-Ortega R, Sempere-Selva MT, et al. Can we ' 'still consider treatment with colchicine effective in SARS-COV-2 ' 'infection? Systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential ' 'analysis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2021;25(22):7151–61.', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/07853890.2021.1993327', 'author': 'D Sanghavi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '775', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Ann Med', 'key': '1201_CR57', 'unstructured': 'Sanghavi D, Bansal P, Kaur IP, et al. Impact of colchicine on mortality ' 'and morbidity in COVID-19: a systematic review. Ann Med. ' '2022;54(1):775–89.', 'volume': '54', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/iid3.562', 'author': 'CS Kow', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '255', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Immun Inflamm Dis.', 'key': '1201_CR58', 'unstructured': 'Kow CS, Lee LH, Ramachandram DS, Hasan SS, Ming LC, Goh HP. The effect ' 'of colchicine on mortality outcome and duration of hospital stay in ' 'patients with COVID-19: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Immun ' 'Inflamm Dis. 2022;10(2):255–64.', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107723', 'author': 'EN Nawangsih', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Int Immunopharmacol', 'key': '1201_CR59', 'unstructured': 'Nawangsih EN, Kusmala YY, Rakhmat II, et al. Colchicine and mortality in ' 'patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: a ' 'systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Int ' 'Immunopharmacol. 2021;96: 107723.', 'volume': '96', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1177/20587384211031763', 'author': 'M Golpour', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '205873842110317', 'journal-title': 'Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol', 'key': '1201_CR60', 'unstructured': 'Golpour M, Mousavi T, Alimohammadi M, et al. The effectiveness of ' 'colchicine as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of coronavirus ' 'disease 2019: meta-analysis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. ' '2021;35:20587384211031764.', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40744-022-00425-0', 'author': 'AA Drosos', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '379', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Rheumatol Ther.', 'key': '1201_CR61', 'unstructured': 'Drosos AA, Pelechas E, Drossou V, Voulgari PV. Colchicine against ' 'SARS-CoV-2 infection: what is the evidence? Rheumatol Ther. ' '2022;9(2):379–89.', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/eci.13645', 'author': 'MN Elshafei', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Clin Invest', 'key': '1201_CR62', 'unstructured': 'Elshafei MN, El-Bardissy A, Khalil A, et al. Colchicine use might be ' 'associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis. ' 'Eur J Clin Invest. 2021;51(9): e13645.', 'volume': '51', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/1440-1681.13488', 'author': 'TI Hariyanto', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '823', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol', 'key': '1201_CR63', 'unstructured': 'Hariyanto TI, Halim DA, Jodhinata C, Yanto TA, Kurniawan A. Colchicine ' 'treatment can improve outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. ' '2021;48(6):823–30.', 'volume': '48', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0261358', 'author': 'L Chiu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '1201_CR64', 'unstructured': 'Chiu L, Lo CH, Shen M, et al. Colchicine use in patients with COVID-19: ' 'a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(12): e0261358.', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/jcla.24057', 'author': 'M Sarwar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Lab Anal', 'key': '1201_CR65', 'unstructured': 'Sarwar M, Ali Z, Fatima M, Sarfraz Z, Sarfraz A, Cherrez-Ojeda I. ' 'Colchicine, COVID-19 and hematological parameters: a meta-analysis. J ' 'Clin Lab Anal. 2021;35(12): e24057.', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/bjh.17885', 'author': 'S Abdeen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '923', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Br J Haematol', 'key': '1201_CR66', 'unstructured': 'Abdeen S, Abu-Fanne R, Bdeir K, et al. Divergent impacts of tocilizumab ' 'and colchicine in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: the role of ' 'alpha-defensins. Br J Haematol. 2022;196(4):923–7.', 'volume': '196', 'year': '2022'}], 'reference-count': 66, 'references-count': 66, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Pharmacology (medical)', 'General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'FRAGILE-COLCOVID19: A Clinical Trial Based on Early Administration of an Oral Combination of ' 'Colchicine and Prednisone in Elderly Patients with COVID-19 in Geriatric Facilities', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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