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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case, 10ng/ml 71% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case, 20ng/ml 46% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Hermawan et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 47 patients in Indonesia (March - July 2022) Fewer symptomatic cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.0000081) Hermawan et al., Molecular and Cellula.., Mar 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association between 25(OH)D3 Levels and the Presence of COVID-19 Symptoms

Hermawan et al., Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, doi:10.21705/mcbs.v7i1.306
Mar 2023  
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Retrospective 47 patients in Indonesia showing lower vitamin D levels associated with increased COVID-19 symptoms. Adjusted results are only provided for vitamin D levels as a continuous value.
This is the 169th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of symptomatic case, 70.6% lower, RR 0.29, p < 0.001, high D levels (≥10ng/ml) 10 of 34 (29.4%), low D levels (<10ng/ml) 13 of 13 (100.0%), NNT 1.4.
risk of symptomatic case, 45.6% lower, RR 0.54, p = 0.42, high D levels (≥20ng/ml) 2 of 7 (28.6%), low D levels (<20ng/ml) 21 of 40 (52.5%), NNT 4.2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hermawan et al., 28 Mar 2023, retrospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, survey, 5 authors, study period March 2022 - July 2022.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between 25(OH)D3 Levels and the Presence of COVID-19 Symptoms
Dessy Hermawan, Nurul Aryastuti, Nova Muhani, Syafik Arisandi, Made Prativi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, doi:10.21705/mcbs.v7i1.306
Background: Recently, there have been studies reporting a relationship between vitamin D levels in the blood and the immune system. This study aimed to analyze the association between vitamin D levels and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and methods: This study was an analytical survey study with a cross-sectional approach, with lecturers at Universitas Malahayati that have been infected with COVID-19 in 2022 as subjects. Total 47 subjects were included. Subjects were fasted overnight, then blood samples were taken from subjects in the next morning. The blood was centrifuged, then the serum was separated for examination by the direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method using Architect 25-OH Vitamin D Reagent. Data was analyzed using logistic regression. Results: None of the subjects had normal blood levels of 25(OH)D 3 and almost half (48.9%) of the subjects had symptoms when infected with COVID-19. There was a significant relationship between the level of 25(OH)D 3 (p=0.001) and the status of the COVID-19 vaccine (p=0.013) with the presence of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: The lower the level of 25(OH)D 3 in the blood and the more incomplete the COVID-19 vaccine, the greater the onset potential of COVID-19 symptoms. It is necessary to maintain vitamin D intake and increase the coverage of the COVID-19 vaccine, especially at booster doses.
Authors Contribution DH, NA and NM were involved in concepting and planning the research and aided in interpreting the results. DH, SA and MP performed the data collection. DH and NA calculated the experimental data and performed the analysis. DH and SA drafted the manuscript. MP designed the tables. All authors took parts in giving critical revision of the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript.
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