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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 42% Improvement Relative Risk Ghanei et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 185 patients in Iran (March 2020 - January 2021) Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.093) Ghanei et al., European J. Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-022-01095-5 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Low serum levels of zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D as potential risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility: a pilot case-control study
Ghanei et al., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-022-01095-5
Ghanei et al., Low serum levels of zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D as potential risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility: a.., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-022-01095-5
Mar 2022   Source   PDF  
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Case control study with 90 COVID-19 cases and 95 matched controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for cases.
risk of case, 42.1% lower, OR 0.58, p = 0.09, high D levels (≥20ng/ml) 58 of 90 (64.4%) cases, 72 of 95 (75.8%) controls, NNT 7.4, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ghanei et al., 23 Mar 2022, prospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period 20 March, 2020 - 20 January, 2021.
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Abstract: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition ARTICLE Nutrition in acute and chronic diseases Low serum levels of zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D as potential risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility: a pilot case-control study Esmat Ghanei1,2,5, Moein Baghani3,5, Hamideh Moravvej3, Atefeh Talebi4, Ayda bahmanjahromi ✉ Fahimeh Abdollahimajd 2,3 3✉ and 1234567890();,: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2022, corrected publication 2022 BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitmain D and zinc levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in comparison to healthy subjects. METHODS: This was a single-center case-control study performed from March 20, 2020, to January 20, 2021, in Tehran, Iran. All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were included in the case group. Controls were selected from patients referred for routine checkups who had a negative COVID-19 PCR test. Age, sex, marital and educational status, comorbidities, and serum 25-hydroxyvitmain D and zinc levels of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Ninety patients in the case group and 95 subjects in the control group who were sex and age-matched were studied. 25hydroxyvitmain D levels higher than 20 ng/ml were observed in 58 (64%) cases and 72 (76%) controls (P = 0.09). The median 25hydroxyvitmain D level in the case group was significantly lower than controls (26 (interquartile range [IQR] = 24) ng/ml vs. 38 (IQR = 22) ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.01). The median zinc level in the case group was 56 (IQR = 23) mcg/dL, while it was 110 (IQR = 27) mcg/dL among the controls (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the level of 25-hydroxyvitmain D and zinc between cases with and without comorbidities (P > 0.05). Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection could be predicted by serum 25hydroxyvitmain D levels below 25.2 ng/ml (81% sensitivity; 48% specificity) or zinc levels below 86.3 mcg/dL (93% sensitivity; 92% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: Low serum zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D levels appear to be risk factors for COVID-19 affliction; thus, the treatment of individuals with such deficiencies is recommended. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition;
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