Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All antiandrogen studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchAntiandrogenAntiandrogens (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -22% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 85% Progression, day 15 76% Progression, day 7 39% Recovery 100% primary Antiandrogens  Ghandehari et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with antiandrogens beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 40 patients in the USA (April - August 2020) Improved recovery with antiandrogens (p=0.024) Ghandehari et al., Chest, July 2021 Favors antiandrogen Favors control

Progesterone in Addition to Standard of Care vs Standard of Care Alone in the Treatment of Men Hospitalized With Moderate to Severe COVID-19

Ghandehari et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.024, NCT04365127
Jul 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
5th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000043 from 50 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 42 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing improved recovery and lower progression with progesterone treatment.
risk of death, 22.2% higher, RR 1.22, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 18 (5.6%), control 1 of 22 (4.5%), day 15.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 84.5% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.24, treatment 0 of 18 (0.0%), control 3 of 22 (13.6%), NNT 7.3, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), peak value day 7 and 15.
risk of progression, 75.6% lower, RR 0.24, p = 0.20, treatment 1 of 18 (5.6%), control 5 of 22 (22.7%), NNT 5.8, day 15.
risk of progression, 38.9% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.48, treatment 3 of 18 (16.7%), control 6 of 22 (27.3%), NNT 9.4, day 7.
relative recovery, 100% better, RR < 0.001, p = 0.02, treatment 18, control 22, relative change in status, day 7, primary outcome.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ghandehari et al., 31 Jul 2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, USA, peer-reviewed, mean age 55.3, 14 authors, study period April 2020 - August 2020, trial NCT04365127 (history). Contact:
This PaperAntiandrogensAll
Progesterone in Addition to Standard of Care vs Standard of Care Alone in the Treatment of Men Hospitalized With Moderate to Severe COVID-19
MD Sara Ghandehari, MD Yuri Matusov, MD Samuel Pepkowitz, PhD Donald Stein, MD Tamana Kaderi, MD Divya Narayanan, MD Josephine Hwang, MD Stephanie Chang, MD Robert Goodman, MS Heli Ghandehari, MS James Mirocha, MS Catherine Bresee, MD Victor Tapson, MD Michael Lewis
Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.024
BACKGROUND: Severity of illness in COVID-19 is consistently lower in women. A focus on sex as a biological factor may suggest a potential therapeutic intervention for this disease. We assessed whether adding progesterone to standard of care (SOC) would improve clinical outcomes of hospitalized men with moderate to severe COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does short-term subcutaneous administration of progesterone safely improve clinical outcome in hypoxemic men hospitalized with COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a pilot, randomized, open-label, controlled trial of subcutaneous progesterone in men hospitalized with confirmed moderate to severe COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned to receive SOC plus progesterone (100 mg subcutaneously twice daily for up to 5 days) or SOC alone. In addition to assessment of safety, the primary outcome was change in clinical status on day 7. Length of hospital stay and number of days on supplemental oxygen were key secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were enrolled from April 2020 to August 2020; 22 were randomized to the control group and 20 to the progesterone group. Two patients from the progesterone group withdrew from the study before receiving progesterone. There was a 1.5point overall improvement in median clinical status score on a seven-point ordinal scale from baseline to day 7 in patients in the progesterone group as compared with control subjects (95% CI, 0.0-2.0; P ¼ .024). There were no serious adverse events attributable to progesterone. Patients treated with progesterone required three fewer days of supplemental oxygen (median, 4.5 vs 7.5 days) and were hospitalized for 2.5 fewer days (median, 7.0 vs 9.5 days) as compared with control subjects. INTERPRETATION: Progesterone at a dose of 100 mg, twice daily by subcutaneous injection in addition to SOC, may represent a safe and effective approach for treatment in hypoxemic men with moderate to severe COVID-19.
Author contributions: S. G., Y. M., S. P., T. K., D. N., J. H., S. C., V. T., and M. L. take responsibility for all content of the manuscript, the integrity of the data, and the accuracy of the data analysis. Concept and design: S. G., Y. M., S. P., D. S., H. G., J. M., V. T., M. L.; acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: S. G., Y. M., S. P., D. S., T. K., D. N., J. H., S. C., C. B., R. G., H. G., J. M., V. T., M. L.; drafting of the manuscript: S. G., Y. M., S. P., D. S., T. K., D. N., J. H., S. C., R. G., H. G., C. B., J. M.; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: S. G., Y. M., D. S., R. G., V. T., M. L.; statistical analysis: H. G., C. B., J. M.; obtaining of funding: S. G.; regulatory compliance: S. G. Role of sponsors: IBSA provided the study drug and provided partial financial support for this investigator-initiated study. IBSA did not oversee the study and has not participated in trial design, patient recruitment, data collection, analysis, interpretations, or preparation of this manuscript. Other contributions: The authors thank the patients who altruistically participated in this randomized trial; Heather Jones, MD, and Darina Barnes, PharmD, for providing independent safety review; S. Ananth Karumanchi, MD, for guidance and review of the manuscript; members of the Cedars-Sinai Biobank for handling specimens; members of the Cedars-Sinai research pharmacy for dispensing the study drug; Vanessa Vasco and other members of the..
Abdulhussain, Azizieh, Makhseed, Raghupathy, Effects of progesterone, dydrogesterone and estrogen on the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines by lymphocytes from women with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, J Reprod Immunol
Alkhouli, Nanjundappa, Annie, Bates, Bhatt, Sex differences in case fatality rate of COVID-19: insights from a multinational registry, Mayo Clin Proc
Barnes, Burnett, Allen, Thromboembolism and anticoagulant therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim clinical guidance from the anticoagulation forum, J Thromb Thrombolysis
Brock, Barnes, Ramirez, Myers, How to handle mortality when investigating length of hospital stay and time to clinical stability, BMC Med Res Methodol
Burtis, Ashwood, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry
Buyon, Korchak, Rutherford, Ganguly, Weissmann, Female hormones reduce neutrophil responsiveness in vitro, Arthritis Rheum
Chen, Wu, Guo, Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019, J Clin Invest
Clarke, Norris, Schiller, Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the 2016 National Health Interview Survey
Cometti, Pharmaceutical and clinical development of a novel progesterone formulation, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
Dashraath, Wong, Lim, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy, Am J Obstet Gynecol
Ding, Zhang, Wang, Potential influence of menstrual status and sex hormones on female SARS-CoV-2 infection: a cross-sectional study from multicentre in Wuhan, China, Clin Infect Dis
Doblinger, Cometti, Trevisan, Griesinger, Subcutaneous progesterone is effective and safe for luteal phase support in IVF: an individual patient data meta-analysis of the phase III trials, PLoS One
Fine, Gray, A proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk, J Am Stat Assoc
Goldman, Lye, Hui, Remdesivir for 5 or 10 days in patients with severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy, JAMA
Guan, Ni, Hu, Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med
Haitao, Vermunt, Abeykoon, COVID-19 and sex differences: mechanisms and biomarkers, Mayo Clin Proc
Hall, Klein, Progesterone-based compounds affect immune responses and susceptibility to infections at diverse mucosal sites, Mucosal Immunol
Hall, Limjunyawong, Vermillion, Progesterone-based therapy protects against influenza by promoting lung repair and recovery in females, PLoS Pathog
Harris, Taylor, Minor, The REDCap consortium: building an international community of software platform partners, J Biomed Inform
Harris, Taylor, Thielke, Payne, Gonzalez et al., Research electronic data capture (REDCap): a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support, J Biomed Inform
Hudic, Fatusic, Szekeres-Bartho, Progesterone-induced blocking factor and cytokine profile in women with threatened pre-term delivery, Am J Reprod Immunol
Klein, Flanagan, Sex differences in immune responses, Nat Rev Immunol
Kovats, Carreras, Hemant, Sex steroid receptors in immune cells
Lidegaard, Lokkegaard, Svendsen, Agger, Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up study, BMJ
Mauvais-Jarvis, Klein, Levin, Estradiol, progesterone, immunomodulation, and COVID-19 outcomes, Endocrinology
Mcfadyen, Stevens, Peter, The emerging threat of (micro)thrombosis in COVID-19 and its therapeutic implications, Circ Res
Miller, Hunt, Regulation of TNF-a production in activated mouse macrophages by progesterone, J Immunol
Mosca, Barrett-Connor, Wenger, Sex/gender differences in cardiovascular disease prevention: what a difference a decade makes, Circulation
Muneyyirci-Delale, Dalloul, Nacharaju, Altura, Altura, Serum ionized magnesium and calcium and sex hormones in healthy young men: importance of serum progesterone level, Fertil Steril
Ntritsos, Franek, Belbasis, Gender-specific estimates of COPD prevalence: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
Par, Geli, Kozma, Varga, Szekeres-Bartho, Progesterone regulates IL12 expression in pregnancy lymphocytes by inhibiting phospholipase A2, Am J Reprod Immunol
Petrilli, Jones, Yang, Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City: prospective cohort study, BMJ
Piccinni, Giudizi, Biagiotti, Progesterone favors the development of human T helper cells producing Th2-type cytokines and promotes both IL-4 production and membrane CD30 expression in established Th1 cell clones, J Immunol
Qiancheng, Jian, Lingling, Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, Int J Infect Dis
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, JAMA
Robinson, Klein, Pregnancy and pregnancy-associated hormones alter immune responses and disease pathogenesis, Horm Behav
Shah, Lai, Imami, Johnson, Progesterone-related immune modulation of pregnancy and labor, Front Endocrinol
Shields, Wright, Paonessa, Progesterone modulation of inflammatory cytokine production in a fetoplacental artery explant model, Am J Obstet Gynecol
Szekeres-Bartho, Faust, Varga, Szereday, Kelemen, The immunological pregnancy protective effect of progesterone is manifested via controlling cytokine production, Am J Reprod Immunol
Szekeres-Bartho, Wegmann, A progesterone-dependent immunomodulatory protein alters the Th1/Th2 balance, J Reprod Immunol
Tea, Castanier, Roger, Scholler, Simultaneous radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone normal values in children, in men and in women throughout the menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy, J Steroid Biochem
Tzotzos, Fischer, Fischer, Zeitlinger, Incidence of ARDS and outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a global literature survey, Crit Care
Wright, Yeatts, Silbergleit, Very early administration of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury, N Engl J Med
Ye, Wang, Mao, The pathogenesis and treatment of the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19, J Infect
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop