Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All exercise studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchExerciseExercise (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case -105% Improvement Relative Risk Exercise for COVID-19  Gao et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 315 patients in China (February - March 2020) More cases with higher activity levels (p=0.00031) Gao et al., PLOS ONE, November 2020 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

The impact of individual lifestyle and status on the acquisition of COVID-19: A case—Control study

Gao et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241540
Nov 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Exercise for COVID-19
9th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Case control study in China with 105 cases and 210 matched controls, showing COVID-19 cases associated with physical activity ≥5 times per week. Authors note that people may choose gyms for exercise in winter, leading to higher exposure risk.
Study covers exercise and sleep.
risk of case, 105.0% higher, HR 2.05, p < 0.001, high activity levels 59 of 105 (56.2%) cases, 69 of 210 (32.9%) controls, case control OR, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gao et al., 5 Nov 2020, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, survey, median age 55.0, 11 authors, study period 10 February, 2020 - 1 March, 2020. Contact:,
This PaperExerciseAll
The impact of individual lifestyle and status on the acquisition of COVID-19: A case—Control study
Chang Gao, Zhi Zhao, Fengyuan Li, Jia-Lin Liu, Hongyang Xu, Yuanying Zeng, Ling Yang, Jiahao Chen, Xiaoting Lu, Can Wang, Qiang Guo
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241540
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to the world. Whether there is an association between lifestyle behaviors and the acquisition of COVID-19 remains unclear. Methods In this case-control study, we recruited 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a case group from the Wuhan Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). For each case two control subjects were recruited. Participants were randomly selected from communities in Wuhan and matched for sex, age (± 2yrs), and pre-existing comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes). Results A total of 105 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 210 controls were included. Compared with control group, the case group had higher proportions of lack of sleep (30.5% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.001) and increased physical activities (56.2% vs. 32.9%, P < 0.001). And patients in the case group were more likely to have alopecia (28.6% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001) than people from the control group. Overall, we found that lack of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.39)], physical activities (� 5 times a week) (adjusted OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.39-3.02) and alopecia (adjusted OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.66) were independent risk factors for COVID-19 infection. Conversely, low-dose alcohol intake (<100g alcohol per week), hand hygiene, and fruits intake (daily) were significantly associated with a decrease in morbidity.
Supporting information Author Contributions Data curation: Chang Gao, Zhi Zhao, Jia-lin Liu, Hongyang Xu, Yuanying Zeng, Ling Yang, Jiahao Chen, Xiaoting Lu, Qiang Guo. Formal analysis: Chang Gao, Zhi Zhao, Fengyuan Li. Investigation: Chang Gao, Fengyuan Li. Supervision: Can Wang, Qiang Guo. Writing -original draft: Zhi Zhao, Fengyuan Li. Writing -review & editing: Qiang Guo.
Antunes, Campos, Parmezzani, Santos, Franchini et al., Sleep quality and duration are associated with performance in maximal incremental test, Physiol Behav, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.05.014
Baglioni, Spiegelhalder, Lombardo, Riemann, Sleep and emotions: a focus on insomnia, Sleep Med Rev, doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.007
Blair, Cheng, Holder, Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits?, Med Sci Sports Exerc, doi:10.1097/00005768-200106001-00007
Bryant, Trinder, Curtis, Sick and tired: Does sleep have a vital role in the immune system?, Nat Rev Immunol, doi:10.1038/nri1369
Carr, Maggini, Vitamin C and Immune Function, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9111211
Chambial, Dwivedi, Shukla, John, Sharma, Vitamin C in disease prevention and cure: an overview, Indian J Clin Biochem, doi:10.1007/s12291-013-0375-3
Columbus, Brust, Arroliga, novel coronavirus: an emerging global threat, Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent), doi:10.1080/08998280.2020.1731272
Covassin, Singh, Sleep Duration and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Epidemiologic and Experimental Evidence, Sleep Med Clin, doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2015.10.007
Ferrara, Ianniello, Bianchi, Quintarelli, Cammerata et al., Beneficial therapeutic effects of vitamin C on recurrent respiratory tract infections in children: preliminary data, Minerva Pediatr
Furushima, Ide, Yamada, Effect of Tea Catechins on Influenza Infection and the Common Cold with a Focus on Epidemiological/Clinical Studies, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules23071795
Gan, Sinclair, Prevalence of male and female pattern hair loss in Maryborough, J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, doi:10.1111/j.1087-0024.2005.10102.x
Goren, Vano-Galvan, Wambier, Mccoy, Gomez-Zubiaur et al., A preliminary observation: Male pattern hair loss among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain-A potential clue to the role of androgens in COVID-19 severity, J Cosmet Dermatol, doi:10.1111/jocd.13443
Griswold, Fullman, Hawley, Arian, Zimsen et al., Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2818%2931310-2
Guan, Ni, Hu, Liang, Ou et al., Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Heikkinen, Jarvinen, The common cold, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2803%2912162-9
Herr, Shaykhiev, Bals, The role of cathelicidin and defensins in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, doi:10.1517/14712598.7.9.1449
Hong, Aung, Kanagasabai, Lim, Liang et al., The association between oral health status and respiratory pathogen colonization with pneumonia risk in institutionalized adults, Int J Dent Hyg, doi:10.1111/idh.12321
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/s0140-6736%2820%2930183-5
Ibarra-Coronado, Pantaleo ´n-Martı ´nez, Velazque ´z-Moctezuma, ´ro-Garcı ´a, ´ndez-Dı ´az et al., The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections, Journal of Immunology Research, doi:10.1155/2015/678164
Jani, Marsicano, Constipation: Evaluation and Management, Mo Med
Jin, Yang, Wu, Chen, Zhang, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v12040372
Kanzigg, Hunt, Oral Health and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Elderly Patients: A Review of the Literature, J Dent Hyg
Lipsitch, Swerdlow, Finelli, Defining the Epidemiology of Covid-19-Studies Needed, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2002125
Liu, Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response, Science, doi:10.1126/science.1123933
Mackiewicz, Shockley, Romer, Galante, Zimmerman et al., Macromolecule biosynthesis: a key function of sleep, Physiological Genomics, doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00275.2006
Mahalanabis, Gupta, Paul, Gupta, Lahiri et al., Risk factors for pneumonia in infants and young children and the role of solid fuel for cooking: a case-control study, Epidemiol Infect, doi:10.1017/s0950268802006817
Mcgill, Kelly, Guerra-Maupome, Winkley, Henningson et al., Vitamin A deficiency impairs the immune response to intranasal vaccination and RSV infection in neonatal calves, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-51684-x
Medrano-Martinez, Ramos-Platon, Cognitive and emotional alterations in chronic insomnia
Patel, Penkert, Jones, Sealy, Surman et al., Baseline Serum Vitamin A and D Levels Determine Benefit of Oral Vitamin A&D Supplements to Humoral Immune Responses Following Pediatric Influenza Vaccination, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v11100907
Phillips, Slomiany, Allison, Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment, Am Fam Physician
Ren, Li, Ren, Xu, Zhang et al., Study on sub-health status and the relationship between it and personal life habits of grade one students in high school in Nanchang City
Rothan, Byrareddy, The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, J Autoimmun, doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433
Sharifi, Vahedi, Nedjat, Rafiei, Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Effect of single-dose injection of vitamin D on immune cytokines in ulcerative colitis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial, Apmis, doi:10.1111/apm.12982
Sheng, Jiu, None
St-Onge, Grandner, Brown, Conroy, Jean-Louis et al., Sleep Duration and Quality: Impact on Lifestyle Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Health: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000444
Thompson, Buchner, Pina, Balady, Williams et al., Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity), Circulation, doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000075572.40158.77
Van Doremalen, Bushmaker, Morris, Holbrook, Gamble et al., Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973
Weil, Mestek, Westby, Van Guilder, Greiner et al., Short sleep duration is associated with enhanced endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor tone, Can J Physiol Pharmacol, doi:10.1139/Y10-046
Ye, Wang, Mao, The pathogenesis and treatment of the 'Cytokine Storm' in COVID-19, J Infect, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.037
Zhai, Ding, Wu, Long, Zhong et al., The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105955
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop