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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 91% Improvement Relative Risk Case 88% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Comunale et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 282 patients in the USA (November 2020 - May 2021) Fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.00061) and cases (p=0.0012) Comunale et al., Vaccines, January 2024 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Supplementation and Prior Oral Poliovirus Vaccination Decrease Odds of COVID-19 Outcomes among Adults Recently Inoculated with Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

Comunale et al., Vaccines, doi:10.3390/vaccines12020121, NCT04639375
Jan 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 282 adults recently vaccinated against poliovirus showing vitamin D supplementation associated with lower COVID-19 PCR+ cases, lower symptomatic cases, and shorter duration of symptoms.
This is the 119th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
risk of symptomatic case, 91.0% lower, OR 0.09, p < 0.001, treatment 100, control 182, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 88.0% lower, OR 0.12, p = 0.001, treatment 100, control 182, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Comunale et al., 24 Jan 2024, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period November 2020 - May 2021, dosage not specified, trial NCT04639375 (history). Contact: (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Supplementation and Prior Oral Poliovirus Vaccination Decrease Odds of COVID-19 Outcomes among Adults Recently Inoculated with Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine
Brittany A Comunale, Yea-Jen Hsu, Robin J Larson, Aditi Singh, Erin Jackson-Ward, Lilly D Engineer
Vaccines, doi:10.3390/vaccines12020121
Background: Structural and functional commonalities between poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suggest that poliovirus inoculation may induce antibodies that mitigate the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). No known studies have evaluated COVID-19 risk factors in adults recently vaccinated against poliovirus. Study Objective: Among adults with no history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination, who recently received an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), we sought to determine which biological factors and social determinants of health (SDOH) may be associated with (1) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, (2) experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, and (3) a longer duration of COVID-19 symptoms. Methods: The influence of biological factors and SDOH on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 symptoms were evaluated among 282 adults recently inoculated with IPV. Participant-reported surveys were analyzed over 12 months post-enrollment. Bivariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models identified associations between variables and COVID-19 outcomes. Results: Adjusting for COVID-19 vaccinations, variants, and other SDOH, secondary analyses revealed that underlying conditions, employment, vitamin D, education, and the oral poliovirus vaccination (OPV) were associated with COVID-19 outcomes. The odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and experiencing symptoms were significantly reduced among participants who took vitamin D (OR 0.12 and OR 0.09, respectively). Unemployed or part-time working participants were 72% less likely to test positive compared with full-time workers. No prior dose of OPV was one of the strongest predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 4.36) and COVID-19 symptoms (OR 6.95). Conclusions: Findings suggest that prophylactic measures and mucosal immunity may mitigate the risk and severity of COVID-19 outcomes. Larger-scale studies may inform future policies.
Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https://, Table S1 . Participant Demographics and Characteristics. Table S2 . Main Effects of Predictor Variables. Funding: The secondary data analysis presented here received no external funding. Institutional Review Board Statement: The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Institutional Review Board reviewed this secondary analysis study and deemed it exempt. The original study from which data were derived was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Advarra (Protocol # Pro00046994, October 2020). Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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