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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization -49% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Aldwihi et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 738 patients in Saudi Arabia (August - October 2020) Higher hospitalization with vitamin D (p=0.0018) Aldwihi et al., Int. J. Environmental .., May 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Patients’ Behavior Regarding Dietary or Herbal Supplements before and during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia

Aldwihi et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18105086
May 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective survey-based analysis of 738 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower hospitalization with vitamin C, turmeric, zinc, and nigella sativa, and higher hospitalization with vitamin D. For vitamin D, most patients continued prophylactic use. For vitamin C, the majority of patients continued prophylactic use. For nigella sativa, the majority of patients started use during infection. Authors do not specify the fraction of prophylactic use for turmeric and zinc.
This is the 34th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 226 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000035.
Study covers vitamin C, zinc, curcumin, vitamin D, and nigella sativa.
risk of hospitalization, 49.3% higher, RR 1.49, p = 0.002, treatment 94 of 259 (36.3%), control 143 of 479 (29.9%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Aldwihi et al., 11 May 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 36.5, 8 authors, study period August 2020 - October 2020, dosage not specified. Contact: (corresponding author),,,,,,,
This PaperVitamin DAll
Patients’ Behavior Regarding Dietary or Herbal Supplements before and during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia
Leen A Aldwihi, Shahd I Khan, Faisal F Alamri, Yazed Alruthia, Faleh Alqahtani, Omer I Fantoukh, Ahmed Assiri, Omar A Almohammed
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18105086
The use of traditional medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia stems mainly from consumers' belief in prophetic medicine. This study was conducted to explore changes in patients' use of dietary or herbal supplements among individuals infected with COVID-19 before and during infection and the association between herbal or dietary supplements and hospitalization. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted enrolling symptomatic patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Data were collected through phone interviews, and McNemar's test was used to investigate changes to consumption of dietary or herbal supplements before and during infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between supplements use during patients' infection and hospitalization. A total of 738 patients were included in this study, of whom 32.1% required hospitalization. About 57% of participants were male with a mean age of 36.5 (±11.9) years. The use of lemon/orange, honey, ginger, vitamin C, and black seed among participants significantly increased during their infection. In contrast, patients using anise, peppermint, and coffee peel before their infection were more likely to stop using them during their infection. In addition, using lemon/orange (p < 0.0001), honey (p = 0.0002), ginger (p = 0.0053), vitamin C (p = 0.0006), black seed (p < 0.0001), peppermint (p = 0.0027), costus (p = 0.0095), and turmeric (p = 0.0012) was significantly higher among nonhospitalized patients than hospitalized ones. However, in the multivariable logistic regression, only use of vitamin C (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.79), peppermint (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90), and lemon/orange (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.33-0.88) was associated with significantly lower odds of hospitalization. The study reveals that patients' consumption of dietary or herbal supplements changed in response to their COVID-19 infection, with hospitalized patients having a lower likelihood of using these supplements. Because some supplements were associated with lower odds of hospitalization, these supplements or their bioactive components should be further investigated as feasible options for COVID-19 treatment.
Informed Consent Statement: Verbal informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study during the phone interview. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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