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Recent:   

Causes and Consequences of Coronavirus Spike Protein Variability

Zech et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020177
Jan 2024  
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Review of causes and consequences of coronavirus spike protein variability focused on SARS-CoV-2. Authors discuss initial features of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and subsequent adaptations to the human host that may have enabled the COVID-19 pandemic. The polybasic furin cleavage site insertion is noted as potentially playing a key role in rapid spread. Later changes are highlighted as mainly promoting immune evasion, though some also increased infectivity. Ongoing evolution of variants like XBB is outlined, with mutations in the receptor binding domain evading neutralizing antibodies. Approaches for broad-spectrum vaccines or therapeutics are considered, including conserved epitope targeting and fusion inhibitors, though challenges remain for durable protection against emerging variants.
Zech et al., 25 Jan 2024, peer-reviewed, 4 authors. Contact: fabian.zech@uni-ulm.de (corresponding author), christoph.jung@kit.edu, timo.jacob@uni-ulm.de, frank.kirchhoff@uni-ulm.de.
This PaperMiscellaneousAll
Causes and Consequences of Coronavirus Spike Protein Variability
Fabian Zech, Christoph Jung, Timo Jacob, Frank Kirchhoff
Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020177
Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses found in numerous animal species. They are well known for their ability to cross species barriers and have been transmitted from bats or intermediate hosts to humans on several occasions. Four of the seven human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are responsible for approximately 20% of common colds (hCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, -HKU1). Two others (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV) cause severe and frequently lethal respiratory syndromes but have only spread to very limited extents in the human population. In contrast the most recent human hCoV, SARS-CoV-2, while exhibiting intermediate pathogenicity, has a profound impact on public health due to its enormous spread. In this review, we discuss which initial features of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and subsequent adaptations to the new human host may have helped this pathogen to cause the COVID-19 pandemic. Our focus is on host forces driving changes in the Spike protein and their consequences for virus infectivity, pathogenicity, immune evasion and resistance to preventive or therapeutic agents. In addition, we briefly address the significance and perspectives of broad-spectrum therapeutics and vaccines.
Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https: //www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/v16020177/s1, Table S1 : GenBank identifiers of analysed Spike proteins (Figure 1 /2). Author Contributions: F.Z. and F.K. wrote the manuscript. F.Z. and C.J. drafted the figures and F.K. modified and revised them. T.J. provided resources and supervised structural analyses. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/v16020177', 'ISSN': ['1999-4915'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v16020177', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses found in numerous animal ' 'species. They are well known for their ability to cross species barriers and have been ' 'transmitted from bats or intermediate hosts to humans on several occasions. Four of the seven ' 'human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are responsible for approximately 20% of common colds (hCoV-229E, ' '-NL63, -OC43, -HKU1). Two others (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV) cause severe and frequently lethal ' 'respiratory syndromes but have only spread to very limited extents in the human population. ' 'In contrast the most recent human hCoV, SARS-CoV-2, while exhibiting intermediate ' 'pathogenicity, has a profound impact on public health due to its enormous spread. In this ' 'review, we discuss which initial features of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and subsequent ' 'adaptations to the new human host may have helped this pathogen to cause the COVID-19 ' 'pandemic. Our focus is on host forces driving changes in the Spike protein and their ' 'consequences for virus infectivity, pathogenicity, immune evasion and resistance to ' 'preventive or therapeutic agents. In addition, we briefly address the significance and ' 'perspectives of broad-spectrum therapeutics and vaccines.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['v16020177'], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, ' '89081 Ulm, Germany'}], 'family': 'Zech', 'given': 'Fabian', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, ' 'Germany'}, { 'name': 'Helmholtz-Institute Ulm (HIU) Electrochemical Energy Storage, ' '89081 Ulm, Germany'}, { 'name': 'Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe, ' 'Germany'}], 'family': 'Jung', 'given': 'Christoph', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7777-2306', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, ' 'Germany'}, { 'name': 'Helmholtz-Institute Ulm (HIU) Electrochemical Energy Storage, ' '89081 Ulm, Germany'}, { 'name': 'Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe, ' 'Germany'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Jacob', 'given': 'Timo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7052-2360', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, ' '89081 Ulm, Germany'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Kirchhoff', 'given': 'Frank', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Viruses', 'container-title-short': 'Viruses', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]], 'date-time': '2024-01-25T08:59:42Z', 'timestamp': 1706173182000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]], 'date-time': '2024-01-25T09:22:57Z', 'timestamp': 1706174577000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100001659', 'award': ['CRC 1279'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft'}, {'award': ['L.SBN.0225'], 'name': 'Ulm University'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 26]], 'date-time': '2024-01-26T00:16:20Z', 'timestamp': 1706228180059}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '2', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 2]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]], 'date-time': '2024-01-25T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1706140800000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/16/2/177/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '177', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 25]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.00026', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': 'ref_1', 'unstructured': 'Banerjee, A., Kulcsar, K., Misra, V., Frieman, M., and Mossman, K. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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