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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ DASS-21 score, DASS-21 54% Improvement Relative Risk Depression score, depress.. 49% Anxiety score, anxiety 66% Stress score, stress 50% Fear of COVID-19 score, f.. 27% Exercise  Yadav et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Effect of Yoga-based breathing practices on depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients: A randomized controlled trial

Yadav et al., Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2024.100897, CTRI/2022/03/041071
Mar 2024  
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Exercise for COVID-19
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RCT 63 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significant reductions in depression, anxiety, stress, and fear scores with breathing exercises 30 minutes per day for 10 days.
relative DASS-21 score, 53.9% better, RR 0.46, p < 0.001, high activity levels mean 14.38 (±7.48) n=32, low activity levels mean 31.17 (±9.76) n=31.
relative depression score, 48.8% better, RR 0.51, p < 0.001, high activity levels mean 5.29 (±3.43) n=32, low activity levels mean 10.33 (±3.23) n=31.
relative anxiety score, 65.6% better, RR 0.34, p < 0.001, high activity levels mean 2.91 (±2.66) n=32, low activity levels mean 8.46 (±3.79) n=31.
relative stress score, 50.3% better, RR 0.50, p < 0.001, high activity levels mean 6.19 (±3.39) n=32, low activity levels mean 12.46 (±4.56) n=31.
relative fear of COVID-19 score, 26.6% better, RR 0.73, p < 0.001, high activity levels mean 17.54 (±2.603) n=32, low activity levels mean 23.91 (±1.78) n=31.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Yadav et al., 24 Mar 2024, Randomized Controlled Trial, India, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period 9 March, 2022 - 27 May, 2022, trial CTRI/2022/03/041071. Contact:
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Effect of Yoga-based breathing practices on depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients: A randomized controlled trial
Sunil Singh Yadav, Apar Avinash Saoji, Sangeeth Somanadhapai, Nand Lal Yadav, Junu Upadhyay, Niraj Nayan Rishi, Rita Thapa
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2024.100897
Background: COVID-19 infection has an impact on the mental state of patients and requires attention to mental health care. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Yoga-based breathing practices on the mental state of patients with COVID-19. Material and methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with63 patients (male=46) who were RT-PCR positive for COVID-19 and hospitalized with asymptomatic (RT-PCR positive but no symptoms), mild (febrile, body ache, pharyngitis, nonproductive cough), and moderate (SpO2< 92%) symptoms assigned in the yoga (n=32) and control group (n=31). The study was conducted at Atharva Multispecialty Hospital and Research Center, North India. The yoga group received Yoga-based breathing practices twice a day for ten days in addition to conventional care, and the control group was advised not to do the practice. The Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21) and fear of COVID-19 were assessed at baseline and after 10 days. Repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used to assess between and within subjects' effects. Results: The experimental group had better scores for depression, anxiety, stress, total DASS scores, and fear of COVID-19 (p<0.001) when compared with the control group. Within the group, analyses demonstrated improved scores in all domains in the yoga group (p<0.001) by the end of the intervention. In contrast, the control group improved only in stress scores (p=0.002), total DASS scores (p=0.012), and fear of COVID-19 (p=0.039). There are no adverse effects seen with Yoga-based breathing practices in these patients. Conclusion: Yoga-based breathing practices have been found to have positive impact on mental health among COVID-19-positive patients during hospitalization.
CRediT authorship contribution statement Sunil Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests or personal relationships that might have influenced the work in this paper.
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