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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 17% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case 11% Vitamin A for COVID-19  Vaisi et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin A beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 3,955 patients in Iran Lower hospitalization (p=0.043) and fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.033) Vaisi et al., The Clinical Respiratory.., May 2023 Favors vitamin A Favors control

The association between nutrients and occurrence of COVID-19 outcomes in the population of Western Iran: A cohort study

Vaisi et al., The Clinical Respiratory Journal, doi:10.1111/crj.13632
May 2023  
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Analysis of nutrient intake and COVID-19 outcomes for 3,996 people in Iran, showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with sufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and selenium intake, with statistical significance for vitamin A and selenium.
This study includes vitamin C, selenium, and vitamin A.
risk of hospitalization, 16.7% lower, HR 0.83, p = 0.04, treatment 1,140, control 2,815, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, sufficient vs. insufficient intake, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
risk of symptomatic case, 10.6% lower, HR 0.89, p = 0.03, treatment 1,140, control 2,815, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, sufficient vs. insufficient intake, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Vaisi et al., 11 May 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
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The association between nutrients and occurrence of COVID‐19 outcomes in the population of Western Iran: A cohort study
Dana Vaisi, Farhad Moradpour, Shadieh Mohammadi, Daem Roshani, Yousef Moradi
The Clinical Respiratory Journal, doi:10.1111/crj.13632
Introduction: The study aimed to determine the association between nutrients (micronutrients, macronutrients, and antioxidants) and the occurrence of COVID-19-related outcomes (morbidity and hospitalization) using a cohort study in Western Iran. Methods: The basic study information was collected from February 2019 to February 2020 from the baseline phase of the Dehgolan Prospective Cohort Study (DehPCS). The primary outcomes in this study included risk of contracting COVID-19 and hospitalization due to it at a specific time. To compare these outcomes based on different nutritional groups (macronutrients or micronutrients), Kaplan-Meier chart and log rank test were used. Also, univariate and multivariate regression models were used to investigate the association between different nutritional groups and desired outcomes (risk of contracting COVID-19 and hospitalization due to it at a certain time). Results: The results showed that people having an insufficient intake of sele-
Other benefits of vitamin E include its role in strengthening the immune system against bacteria and viruses, especially the coronavirus. 26 Vitamin A is one of the fat-soluble vitamins, whose active forms are retinol and retinoic acid. Precursors of these molecules are synthesized by plants in the form of carotenoids. 27 Vitamin A in the body has various roles, including participation in the biosynthesis of proteins, regulation of oxidative phosphorylation reactions in the mitochondria of liver cells, balance of the mitochondrial membrane, effect on mucous secretions such as tears and spinal fluid, helping in the formation of bone cells, and a fundamental role in sight. This vitamin plays a significant role in improving the body's immune system. The results of various studies showed that this vitamin could affect the reduction in the activity of various infectious viruses, especially the coronavirus, and increase the body's immunity. 28 Also, published evidences around the CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT The authors declare that they have no competing interests. ETHICS STATEMENT The study was a master's thesis in Epidemiology and was financially supported by Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, Iran (IR.MUK. REC.1401.125). ORCID Yousef Moradi
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