Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infection
Ünsal et al.
, Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with..
, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9
Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.
risk of death, 80.6% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.23, high D levels 0 of 29 (0.0%), low D levels 2 of 27 (7.4%), NNT 14, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >=20ng/mL.
risk of oxygen therapy, 73.4% lower, RR 0.27, p = 0.07, high D levels 2 of 29 (6.9%), low D levels 7 of 27 (25.9%), NNT 5.3, >=20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ünsal et al., 5 Apr 2021, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
Abstract: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation (2021) 44:2601–2607
Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers
and course of the disease in patients with COVID‑19 infection
Y. A. Ünsal1 · Ö. Ö. Gül1
O. Ünsal3 · E. Ertürk1
· S. Cander1
· C. Ersoy1
· E. Aydemir1
· C. Ateş1
· Z. Uzun2
· E. Armağan2
Received: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published online: 5 April 2021
© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2021
Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last
6 months prior to COVID-19 infection and parameters of immune function and clinical outcomes.
Methods Fifty-six patients, who were admitted to the emergency clinic and diagnosed with COVID–19 infection, were
included in the study. Data on clinical characteristics, inflammatory parameters and vitamin D status were recorded for each
patient. All the participants had data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection.
Results The patients were stratified as those with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL and higher than 20 ng/mL. A group
with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL had lower lymphocyte counts and lower haemoglobin levels that was statistically
significant (respectively; p = 0.021, p = 0.035). Higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were seen in the vitamin D–deficient
group (p = 0.013). It was observed that vitamin D status of the patients who required oxygen therapy were lower than those
who did not require oxygen therapy, not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Patients who did not use vitamin D supplementation within 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection had more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia (p = 0.004).
Conclusion Cases with lower vitamin D status had increased inflammatory markers and worse clinical outcomes than patients
with higher vitamin D status. This study suggests that vitamin D status can be used as a prognostic factor in COVID-19
patients, and vitamin D supplementation can be recommended to improve the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection.
Keywords Vitamin D · COVID-19 · Immunity · Anti-inflammatory · Pneumonia
* Y. A. Ünsal
Ö. Ö. Gül
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology
and Diseases of Metabolism, Bursa Uludag University,
Faculty of Medicine, Emergency Department, Bursa Uludag
University, Bursa, Turkey
Faculty of Medicine, Oncology Department, Ankara Gazi
University, Ankara, Turkey
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